- Br to C -
The biographical articles are listed alphabetically. You can scroll through or use your browsers "find" command to look for particular surnames. Sources are listed at the end of this page.
BRADEN, Robert F.
It is a mistake to farm on the theory that crop rotation is the only essential to soil fertility. It is true that an intelligent rotation of crops will generally result in increased yields, but unless the rotation includes one of the legumes of the land is heavily fertilized with mature. The rotation will really mean depletion. Rotation will have the effect of increasing the yields for a period of years and an increased yield naturally draws heavily upon the plan food element of the soil. Continued croping exposes the land to various weaknesses of the particular crop that is grown, and as no two crops extract the same proportion of plant food, the continually grown crop is bound to lessen the available fertility of one or more of the principal soil constituents. Rotation has the effect of making available all of the plant food element, and as the average soil is generally well supplied with fertile material, depletion will come that much sooner unless proper steps are taken to maintain the principal soil ingredients.
One of the most extensive and successful general farmers and stock men of Washington township, Clinton county, who has well understood the subjects of crop rotation and fertilization, so that the original fertility and strength of soil has been retained on his fine farm, widely known as "Blue Grass Stock Farm," is Robert F. Braden, whose attractive home is located three miles west of the town of Jefferson.
Mr. Braden was born on a farm in this locality on July 20, 1868. He is a son of William M. BRADEN, deceased, who was for many years one of Clinton county's leading citizens. He was born on the old Braden homestead in 1837, and here he spent his life engaged in farming and his father, Burr BRADEN, kept a store at Jefferson. He married Laura WATT daughter of Robert WATT, and here she was reared and educated.
Burr Braden, our subject's paternal grandfather, was a farmer in Virginia, and he emigrated to Clinton county, Indiana, when this country was a wilderness and settled in the woods, but being a hard worker and a rugged character he soon had a good home established. His wife was a Miss JENNERS, of a prominent old family of Virginia. Their family consisted of nine children: Hector, Mrs. Sarah CLARK, William M., father of our subject; Robert F., Sr., a soldier in the Civil war, died at Lafayette where he was a prominent citizen; Alba, Annie, Jennings, Addison, died in 1912 in Lafayette, and Mrs. Jeanette GARRETT of Frankfort.
To William M. BRADEN and wife three children were born: Mary J., still living on the old home place; Robert F., of this review, and Alba who died when thirty-five years of age, leaving a widow and two children, William M., and Laura N.
The subject of this review was reared on the home place and he assisted with the general work there when a boy. He received a good education in the public schools. He was married in 1911 to Christine DORNER, who was born, reared and educated at Frankfort. She is a daughter of Philip and Magdalene DORNER, a well known family of Frankfort.
Mr. Braden has a well improved and valuable farm of over five hundred acres, and everything is under a superb system. On it stands an excellent set of outbuildings, and a good ten-roomed dwelling, neatly furnished. He is an excellent judge of live stock, and feeds large numbers of cattle and hogs annually for the market. He raises Percheron horses and his fine draft horses find a very ready market owing to their superior quality. He is owner of some of the best horses in the state, which are greatly admired by all who see them.
pp. 490-491 Source II
Transcribed by Tonya
BRANSTETTER, James N.
The methods followed by James N. Branstetter, successful farmer of Warren township, Clinton county, always bring success when persistently applied as they have been done in his case, for he is a man who lays his plans well before beginning their execution. He realizes the fact that this is an epoch when farming must be done along somewhat different lines than it ever was before in the history of the world, and he has sought to find out everything possible regarding the most approved methods, being careful to accept those that were applicable to this soil and climate and just as careful to discard those which were not. So he has succeeded, as might be expected, for, besides knowing what to do and when to do it he has ever been an untiring and persevering worker.
Mr. Branstetter was born in the above mentioned township and county, January 10, 1873. He is a son of Jacob and Ruthy (HARMON) BRANSTETTER. The father, who was born in Clinton county, is still living, making his home in Russiaville. The mother of our subject was born in Tennessee and is also still living. The elder Branstetter devoted his early life to general farming, but for the past fifteen years he has been employed in a grain elevator in Russiaville, and has built up a wide and lucrative trade, and is one of the substantial business men of that section of the county. To these parents four children were born: Mrs. Ella LAUCHNER, Mrs. Alice B. HAYNES, James N., of this review, and Charles (deceased).
The subject of this sketch grew to manhood on the home farm and received his education in the common schools. On February 22, 1899, he married Ethel J. NORRIS, who was born in Clinton county, Indiana, three miles east of Frankfort, in 1878. There she grew to womanhood and was educated in the public schools of that district. She is a daughter of William and Sarah J. (FUDGE) NORRIS, both parents being natives of Indiana. They devoted their activities to farming. The father is deceased, but the mother is still living.
Seven children have been born to our subject and wife, namely: Morris, Fay, Vern, Eldo, James, Ruth and Charles.
Mr. Branstetter moved from Clinton to Carroll county, when a boy and there engaged in farming. Returning to Clinton county in 1898 he resumed farming here which he has followed with success ever since. He owns one hundred and sixty acres of well improved and well cultivated land, all tillable, but about eight acres of well improved and well cultivated land, all tillable, but about eight acres which is in timber. He has a good home and good outbuildings. He raises a large number of live stock from year to year.
Mr. Branstetter is a Democrat, and religiously, he belongs to the Methodist Episcopal church. He is not a public man and yet his support may always be depended upon in furthering any movement of general interest to his locality.
pp. 629-630 Source II
Transcribed by Tonya
BRIDGES, Charles W.
Among the representative farmers of Clinton county is the subject of this sketch, who is the owner of a fine farm in Jackson township, and is carrying on the various departments of his enterprise with a discretion and energy which are sure to result in a definite success. Having always been a hard worker, a clever manager, and a man of economy, and being fortunately situated in a prosperous farming community, it is small wonder that he stands in the front rank of the agriculturists of his region.
Charles W. Bridges was born to Hamilton county, O., on November 9, 1858, being the son of Elmer C. and Ellen (JACKSON) BRIDGES. Elmer Bridges was a native of Ohio, being born in Hamilton county. He served valiantly in the Civil war with an Ohio regiment, and there met his death. Ellen Bridges, the mother, was born April 27, 1840, and now lives at Newport, Kentucky. Elmer Bridges, while he lived, was a farmer, and, politically, believed in the Republican party. Three children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Bridges: namely, Charles, Frank, and Wesley.
Charles W. Bridges was married the first time to Susan May BAUGHMAN on September 16, 1880. She was born in Clinton county, Ind. On October 6, 1896, her death occurred. On March 30, 1898, Mr. Bridges married his second wife, who was Anna HOOVER, a Clinton county girl, born February 4, 1856, being the daughter of Enos and Ruhama (SHAW) HOOVER.
From Hamilton county, O., Charles Bridges moved to Clinton county, Ind., in the year October 6, 1870. Here he remained until 1889, when he returned to his native state. For six years he remained there and then made the return journey to Clinton county. Mr. Bridges entered the grocery business in Frankfort for a period of two years. In 1808 he moved to his farm in Jackson township, where he now lives in company with his wife. However, feeling the weight of active care of his place, Mr. Bridges rents his farm and leads a retired life. There are forty acres in the farm, all tillable and well drained. The latest improvements have either been added personally or under the direction of Mr. Bridges. Besides farming and other pursuits mentioned, Mr. Bridges, in his versatile and interesting way, has engaged in fruit growing enterprises and the truck business.
Mr. Bridges belongs to the Woodmen of the World in Frankfort, and in politics is a Prohibitionist. He is a member of the Presbyterian church at Prairie Center, of which he is an elder and clear, besides being superintendent of the Sunday school.
pp. 607-608 Source II
Transcribed by Tonya
BRIDGFORD, Charles Madison
CHARLES MADISON BRIDGFORD, who is snccessfully (sic) engaged in general farming in Kirklin township, Clinton county, Ind., was born in Butler county, Ohio, January 10, 1824, and is of Welsh descent. His grandfather, William Bridgford, was a native of Virginia, and was a blacksmith and farmer. He voted with the democratic party, and lived to the age of eighty-four. His children were John, William B., George, Richard, Walter, Polly, Eliza, Nancy and Elsie. William Bonaparte Bridgford was horn (sic) in Virginia in 1794, and when a young man learned the trade of shoemaking, which he followed several years. He married Polly Wakeland, of Kentucky, daughter of Charles and Permilia WAKELAND, and their children were: Andrew J., Mary A., Samuel A., Charles M., Caroline G., Parmelia, Francis E. (deceased), James, William T. and Eliza (who died at the age of eleven years). Mr. Bridgford owned fifty acres of college land near Oxford, Ohio. Which sold on removing to Fayette county, Ind., in 830. In 1832, he settled in Marion county, and there he reared part of his family, and accumulated 400 acres of land. He became a prominent and influential citizen, and for four years served as justice of the peace. In politics he was first a whig and afterward a republican. Like his father and brother, he served in the war of 1812, with the mounted men which were sent to Canada. He died at the age of sixty-eight, and his wife passed away in 1850, at the age of fifty-four years. They were buried in Marion county, Ind
C. M. Bridgeford spent the days of his boyhood and youth on a farm, and was educated in a log school-house, which he attended two months each winter. He lived with his parents until February 25, 1847, when he married Mary A. Hilton, who was born July 10, 1828, and is the daughter of Aquilla and Sarah (REDWINE) HILTON. They had two children, Virginia A. and Sam A. (who died in childhood). They began their domestic life of the old home farm, and in those early days were a period of hardship. First the daughter died; then, on the 28th of May, 1851, the mother passed away; while, shortly after the son joined the silent majority. Mr. Bridgeford was again married February 9, 1859, his second union being with Ellen Miller, who was born July 14, 1825, and was a daughter of Isaac and Sarah (LIDDICK) MILLER, the former a native of Virginia, and the latter of Maryland. Mr. Bridgeford inherited from his father about $1,900, and his wife received from her father 120 acres of land. The farm on which they now reside is a rich and highly cultivated tract, well drained with 800 rods of tiling supplied with all modern improvements and accessories. The pleasant home is the abode of hospitality, and our subject and his worthy wife rank high in social circles and have many warm friends in the community. In politics he is a stalwart republican, unswerving in his allegiance to the party. pp. 595- 596 Source I
Transcribed by Connie
BRAND, Samuel S.
SAMUEL S. BRAND, one of the most prominent farmers of Ross township, Clinton county, Ind., descends form German ancestors. The founder of the family was an old settler of Maryland, and the grandfather was from Hagerstown. The latter moved to Ohio at an early age and was one of the pioneers of Butler county. He married Lydia VANCE and to them were born eight children: Washington, Michael, Samuel, Eli, John, Elizabeth, Mary and Lydia. Mr. Brand later settled in Sheffield township, Tippecanoe county, Ind., where he entered 162 acres and cleared up his farm from wilderness, making a good home, owned at the time 320 acres, and was accustomed to assist each of his children to land. In his old age he became a member of the Lutheran church, was a republican in politics, was well known as a pioneer citizen of Tippecanoe county, was highly respected and died as an aged man. Washington brand, father of Samuel A., was born in Butler county, Ohio and was a small boy when brought to Indiana by his parents. He received a common education and became a farmer; married Catherine CLAUSEN, and to them were born four children: Samuel A., Orlando, Eli L. and Alexander A. After the marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Brand settled on 160 acres of land in Sheffield township, half of which he cleared up and made a good home. His wife having died, he married a widow, Susan HELLICK, nee DeLONG, and by her became the father of three children: Morton, Roy K. and Ella H. Mr. Brand passed his remaining days on his farm and died aged fifty-two years, a member of the German Reform church. He was a man of honest purposes in life, and noted for his integrity and business ability. By thrift and industry he accumulated 664 acres, all in Clinton county except 154 acres, in Clinton county, on which his son, Samuel A. now resides. Besides being a prosperous farmer, Mr. Brand ran a steam threshing machine for years, having the second steam thresher in this part of the country.
Samuel A. Brand was born January 3, 1852, on his fathers farm, received a common education and became a carpenter and farmer. He married, March 26, 1878, at twenty-six years of age, Louisa HEATON (born August 27, 1857, at Battle Ground city, Tippecanoe, Ind.), daughter of Andrew J. and Delia (SCHURTZ) HEATON, whose remote ancestors were English Puritans, and came over on the good ship Mayflower with the Pilgrims, in 1620. William Heaton was born in Kentucky, where his father was one of the original pioneers with Daniel Boone. He settled on the site of what is now Louisville, Ky., purchasing a claim for 900 acres, from which he was driven by the Indians, and died a short time after. William Heaton, one of his sons and grandfather of Mrs. Brand, settled at Wyandotte, Tippecanoe county, and one of the pioneers. When he passed through La Fayette if contained but four cabin. At Wyandotte he built the first grist-mill in the state of Indiana and also built a saw-mill. He began life with 160 acres of land and kept adding until he finally owned 2,200 acres on Wild Cat Prairie. He was a man of great energy and force of character and a prominent citizen. Andrew J. Heaton, father of Mrs. Brand was born in Ohio, received a good education, and was brought to Indiana by his father when a boy. He married a widow RANDOLPH, nee SCHUARTZ. To Mr. and Mrs. Heaton were born three children: Rachael, Louisa and Milton. After the marriage, Mr. Heaton lived in Battle Ground, Tippecanoe county, kept a general store and was postmaster many years. He was a member of the Methodist church, politically a democrat, and fraternally he was a Mason. After marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Brand settled on their present farm of 154 acres, of which Mr. Brand inherited from his father seventy-four acres. There were no improvements on the farm when settled on it, and he erected his present tasteful and substantial residence in 1877, and has also put up commodious barns and other buildings. Mr. Brand is a practical progressive farmer, keeps well with the times, and has one of best farms in Clinton county. To himself and wife have been born five children: Gerda E., Lula, Augusta, Samuel O. and Ralph W. Mr. Brand is a member of the Presbyterian church. Mrs. Brand is a member of the Progressive Baptist church. In politics he is a republican. He is a member of Mulberry lodge, No. 395, I. O. O. F., and has held all offices. Mr. Brand is a practical mechanic, thoroughly understands the use of tools, and has done much of his own carpenter work, stands high in Clinton county for his sterling worth. pp. 901- 902 Source I
Transcribed by Connie
ABSALOM BRANDON, one of the influential and wealthy farmers of Michigan township, Clinton county, Ind., is a native of the county, and was born January 19, 1839. His paternal ancestor, the fourth generation back, came from England and his son, Absalom, the first native-born Brandon, was the grandfather of the subject of this sketch. He was born in Virginia, but the greater portion of his life was passed in Butler county, Ohio. Samuel Brandon, father of our subject, was born in Butler county, Ohio, and was a wagon-maker. by trade. He and wife came to Frankfort, Clinton county, Ind., when that city was a mere village of log huts, and there he worked at his trade for ten dollars per month, while his wife worked for her board. Within the year, however, he bought a shop of his own, and this he carried on for fifteen years. He then sold out, and engaged in butchering and packing pork. Later he sold this business and engaged in land speculation, having, at times, secured large tracts in Clinton county. He married Mariah HILL, daughter of Willson HILL, and to this union were born the following children: Orr; Mary; William (who died while sheriff of Clinton county), Nancy A.; Mynda; Absalom, and Mariah.
Absalom Brandon, subject of this sketch, passed the latter part of his youth as a clerk in a store in Frankfort, and at the age of twenty began farming, and now owns 240 acres and a large house and barn. He married Lovina DOW, daughter of Edmund and Mary (STORER) DOW. Grandfather DOW was an early settler of Pennsylvania, coming from New Jersey, and Edmund DOW was a pioneer teacher of Clinton county, Ind. He pursued his vocation in Michigantown when the log school-house was the recognized edifice for school purposes. He was also a farmer, owning I70 acres. To the marriage of Absalom and Lovina Brandon have been born the following named children: James E., Samuel, Mariah, Humbert, Lulu, Virgil, and Clinton. Mr. Brandon is a strong democrat, and was one, among others, to visit Toledo to investigate the advisability of voting a tax in his neighborhood for railway purposes -- the report being favorable. Mr. Brandon is a non-affilliating Red Man, but he is of a very social turn, and his spacious home is often filled to overflowing by congenial neighbors. He often compliments his wife by saying," We will consult her; she has made me what I am." p. 903. Source I
Transcribed by Connie
BRANT, David S.
As long as history is studied will the American people revere the heroes, who, between the years of 1861 and 1865, fought to keep as one a country that threatened to divide for all time. Monuments and fitting ceremonies may celebrate the lives given so freely in those days in the cause of the land, but the true appreciation, the lasting one, will be in the thoughts of the people, that will be handed down from generation to generation until possibly some day they will become a tradition, the recital of which will serve as a slogan for our childrens' deeds on the field of honor. The veterans are leaving us fast, leaving their records for us to reflect upon, but yet there are many left, an army of them. In the front ranks will be found one of the most honored and respected citizens of Frankfort. He is David S. Brant.
Mr. Brant was born in Michigan township, Clinton county, January 31, 1840, the son of Abram L. and Catherine (WILSON) BRANT. The father was a native of New Jersey, and the mother was born in the state of Ohio. Abram BRANT came to Clinton county in the early days of 1838, traveling overland in covered wagons, and settled in Michigan township where he followed his life-long trade, that of shoemaking. He raised a large family of eight children, and four of them still survive.
In his early life, David Brant was educated in the common schools of Clinton county, and after leaving his desk in the school room he took up farming in the same county.
In 1861, when President Lincoln called for volunteers to fight for the preservation of the union, David Brant was one of the most eager to respond. On August 3, 1861, he handed his name to the recruiting officer as a member of Company C. Tenth Indiana Infantry. Colonel Manson, now famous in the annals of Indiana's participation in the struggle, was the commanding officer. The Tenth Regiment was assigned to the Army of the Cumberland, and with them went David Brant, participating in the brilliant and successful campaign of that division under the command of General Thomas. On September 19, 1864, Mr. Brant was mustered out in Indianapolis. He returned to his farm in Clinton county, and remained there until he decided to retire, whereupon, in 1890, he moved to Frankfort and resides there now in comfort and peace.
The lean and grizzled veteran that trudged back to Indiana from the dust and heat of the army campaign was not to go without reward. A sweet-faced Michigan township girl waited patiently, Julia A. FUDGE was her name, and on November 8, 1865, a year and two months after he was mustered out of the army, Mr. Brant married her. She was the daughter of Moses and Mary (HARSHBARGER) FUDGE. Moses FUDGE came to Indiana from Rockingham county, Virginia, and the wife came from Ohio in 1833. They settled in Michigan township, five miles east of Frankfort.
Mr. Brant has ever taken an active interest in the affairs of the community, never hesitating to take up any task demanded by him by his fellow townsmen and always in a cheerful and willing mood. For three years he was drainage commissioner of Frankfort, and performed the duties of his office in very creditable manner. Mr Brant is one of the bulwarks of the Grand Army of the Republic, lending his picturesque and interesting character to the aid of his former comrades. The Progressive party found a strong supporter in Mr. Brant, and he bids fair to remain loyal. Pages 400 & 401.
Transcribed by Connie
MARCELLUS BRISTOW, a prominent member of the Frankfort bar, is a native of Indiana, born on the 12th day of September, 1849, in Clinton county. His father, John BRISTOW, was born in Owen county, Ky., and married Lucinda Harding, daughter of Noah and Mary (CARR) HARDING, natives of the same county, and about 18-- came to Indiana, locating at Danville, thence moving to the county of Clinton, where he remained until his death, which occurred in the year 1874. John Bristow was a well-to-do farmer and citizen, who enjoyed great popularity in the community where he resided. His widow is now living, at the age of seventy-five years, on the home farm. She is a devout member of the Christian church, to which religious body her husband also belonged for many years. The following are the names of their children: Euclid, a resident of Clinton county; Marcellus, the subject of this mention; Louisa, wife of William A. THOMAS; Jasper, deceased; Melvin, who lives in one of the western states; Caroline, wife, of Squire MOORE, and Noah, residing in Oklahoma territory. Marcellus BRISTOW grew up on a farm, enjoyed the advantages of a good English education, and remained under the parental roof until his seventeenth year, at which time he began life for himself, on a place given him by his father, who also allowed him his freedom at that age. Until his twenty-third year Mr. BRISTOW was engaged in the pursuit of agriculture in connection with buying and selling cattle, and then began the practice of law, which profession he had previously prepared for by a course of reading at the town of Scircleville. In 1878, he sought a wider field for the exercise of his legal talent, going to the town of Tipton, where he practiced for five years, meeting with flattering success in the meantime, but losing considerable money through ill-advised speculations of various kinds. From Tipton Mr. Bristow returned to his farm in Clinton county, and there resided several years, engaged in agriculture and looking, after the interests of his property, which had become considerable. In 1884, he located at Frankfort and resumed the practice of his profession, in partnership with Judge HIGINBOTHAM, and later was associated with Bert BEARD for a period of two years. At this time Mr. Bristow is a member of the law firm of HICKMAN & BRISTOW and has a large and lucrative practice in Clinton county, taking high rank among the successful lawyers of the Frankfort bar. In the matter of accumulating property, Mr. Bristow has been signally fortunate, his possessions representing valuable real in Clinton and Tipton counties, also lots in the town of Scircleville and the city of Frankfort. Politically, he wields an influence for the republican party, and he has decided opinions on all leading public questions, which he does not hesitate to express. Mr. Bristow was married in Clinton county, Ind., to Miss Sarah J. BIDDEL, and has had born to him three children, viz: Mariam (deceased), Marvin and Merton. pp. 902 - 903. Source I Transcribed by Connie
BROCK, A. D.
A. D. BROCK, one of the most extensive farmers of Johnson township, Clinton county, Ind., is a native of the state and was born in Johnson county, November 1, 1824. His father, Elias Brock, was born in Kentucky February 8, 1800, moved from his native state to Ohio, and thence to Indiana, where he was married, in Johnson county, to Miss Mary DURBIN, a native of Kentucky. In 1835 Elias Brock brought his family to Clinton county and here purchased 240 acres of wild land, and also entered forty acres from the government, but did not live long afterward, dying in February, 1839, and leaving a widow, who had borne him eight children. Two of these had previously died, and of the remaining six A. D. Brock was the eldest, and is now the only survivor. Mrs. Brock was born April 12, 1802, was married December 6, 1821, and died March 25, 1872. The names of her deceased children were Elizabeth, Susan, Martha, Thomas, Clarissa, John W. and Nancy M.
A. D. Brock, as will have been noticed, was but fourteen years old when he lost his father, and being the eldest son, was naturally the one on whom the care of the home farm devolved, and the chief part of this care was to release it from indebtedness, which, by hard work he succeeded in doing. Not only this, he has added to the old homestead until he now owns 818 acres, and an important factor in this desired result has been stock raising. His success in life has been marvelous, and he has now retired from active work, renting his land and giving it only a general supervision. Mr. Brock has never married, and until her recent death his sister had been his housekeeper. Politically, Mr. Brock is a democrat. In his retirement he enjoys not only the comforts secured by a well-spent life, but the respect of all who know him. pp. 596 599 Source I
Transcribed by Connie
BROOKIE, John A
JOHN A. BROOKIE, a thriving farmer of Jackson township, Clinton county, Ind. was born in Oldham county, Ky., February 6, 1821, and is the second son of William and Mary (DOUGHERTY) BROOKIE, also natives of Kentucky and of Scotch-Irish ancestry. William, the father, was the son of John Brookie, a soldier of the Revolutionary war, who was shot in the left shoulder at the battle of Lexington, and crippled for life; William Brookie, his son, served in the war of 1812. John, the grandfather, was the progenitor of the American family, and in coming from Scotland to America settled in Pennsylvania, where he was married, and subsequently moved to Kentucky, locating in Lexington. After the death of his wife he came to Madison county, Ind, and lived until his death with his daughter, Mrs. Catherine ANDERSON. The father of our subject, William Brookie, was born December 8, 1782, was married May 30, 1816, and died July 23, 1838. Mary (Doughtery) Brookie was born January 9, 1794, and died May 14, 1868. On coming from Kentucky to Indiana, William made a temporary sojourn in Madison county, where he followed carpentering the while, and then returned to Kentucky, lived there until 1834, and then again came to Indiana, and for four years resided in Clinton county, and finally went to Carroll county, where he died in 1838, his widow surviving until 1868. They were the parents of thirteen children, ten of whom lived to maturity, namely: Mary A., James D., John A., Sarah A.. Robert H., Catherine E., Eliza F., Louisa J., Amanda D., and Harvey E. The father of these children was a member of the Social Reform church and his wife of the Presbyterian church.
John A. BROOKIE was fourteen years of age when he came to Clinton county; a year later he moved to Carroll county, where he resided until the death of his father, at which time his mother, with her family, returned to Clinton county. John A. remained with his mother until he was twenty-five years of age. May 13, 1850, he was united in marriage to Miss May McCOLLOM, the daughter of David and Elizabeth McCOLLOM, the former of Irish and the latter of Welsh descent. Mrs. Brookie is a native of Mason county, Ky., where her father died when she was three years of age, after which her mother moved to Adams county, Ohio, and thence, in 1845, to Clinton county, Ind. After his marriage, Mr. Brookie purchased a part of the old homestead on the Twelve Mile Priarie, where he lived six years, then settled on his present farm, which was then a dense wilderness, and comprised 218 acres, forty of which lie in Boone county. Mr. and Mrs. Brookie are the parents of eleven children, namely: Eliza M., born March 18, 1851, wife of Isaac N. IRVIN, they were married August 15, 1888; Mary E., born February 17, 1853; James R., February 15, 1855, died January 2, 1857; Harvey, born May 5, 1857, married Hannah PARIS March 15, 1880; Hester H.; born September 16, 1859, married James BERRY January 1, 1885; Elmira, born March 1, 1862; Thomas, born November 1, 1864, married Mary E. BENNETT April 4, 1888; William A., born May 8, 1867, married Luetta STRANGE December 4, 1889; Martha E., born January 15, 1870, married William STERN December 5, 1889; John E., born July 9, 1872, died August 22, 1872; infant child, August 11, 1874, died September 17, 1874. Pages 599-600 Source I
Transcribed by Chris Brown
BROOKS, Wiley W.
WILEY W. BROOKS, one of the heaviest farmers of Forest township, Clinton county, Ind., was born in Tazewell county, Va., and is of German descent through the distant past. His grandfather, Robert Brooks, was also a native of Tazewell county, Va., where he owned a plantation, and from which state he volunteered as a soldier in the war of 1812. His son, Robert BROOKS, Jr., was born in Tazewell county also, in the year 1801. He married Sarah VENSEL, and had born to him six children in the following order: Manda, Adeline V., Robert 0., Andrew. J., Wiley W. and Sarah E. Both parents were members of the M. E. church. They came to Clinton county in 1858, and here the father died in 1872, the death of the mother having taken place in Tazewell county, Va. Wiley W. BROOKS was reared a farmer and educated in the proverbial log schoolhouse. He married Elizabeth Michael, daughter of Abraham and Mary (TROBAUGH) MICHAEL, who were of German descent and among the early settlers of Clinton county. At their marriage Wiley W. Brooks and wife settled on a part of her father's old farm, which part they have increased so as to comprise 190 acres, improved with a good dwelling and barn and in a good state of cultivation. Mr. Brooks also owns and operates a steam thresher.
The children born to Mr. and Mrs. Brooks were named Leona, Albert H., Williard D., and Lessie G. Of these, Leona died February 10, 1892. at the age of eighteen, a devout member of the M. P. church, and beloved by all who knew her, and Albert H., is a teacher in the township schools. Mr. and Mrs. Brooks are both members of the M. P. church, in which he is a class leader, has been steward, was at one time Sabbath-school superintendent, and is now a Sabbath-school teacher. Mr. Brooks is also a member of Forest lodge, No. 592, I. 0. 0 F., in which he has passed all the chairs, and which he has represented in the grand lodge; he is likewise a member of the encampment, and also a K. of P. The family stand very high socially and their circle of acquaintances is large and influential. P. 599 Source I
Transcribed by Chris Brown
BROWN, George W. (Captain
As the aristocratic Southland today loves the memory of Jeb Stuart's rollicking, courageous and daring cavalry troop, so does the more astute North glory in the recollection of Wilder's Lightning Brigade, that hardy, manly and intrepid company of men who played so conspicuous a part in the campaigns of the Army of the Cumberland. On the bloody fields of Chickamauga and around Chattanooga these men from Indiana and Illinois fought, and they came to bear the reputation of being able to "lick anything that stood before them." Since those days of strife the men who composed the rank and file have scattered over the whole county. Some in the years since have filled the highest offices in the country, others have entered the different professions, some in the law courts have made their names famous and othres (sic) as financiers, have made distinct successes. The immediate subject of this sketch was a member of the Seventy-second Indiana and the Ninety-eighth Illinois, made up Wilder's Brigade when it was organized at Louisville, Kentucky, in September, 1862. His part in the activities of that famous brigade was a notable one and his conduct was ever that becoming a gentleman and an officer.
Captain George W. Brown was born on a farm in Warren county, O., August 3, 1843, and was the son of Jeffrey and Mary (IRWIN) BROWN. In the spring of 1851 our subject's father moved to Clinton county, and settled on a farm. Captain Brown's early education was obtained in the common schools of Rossville, which town was near to his home farm. At the age of sixteen years he began the study of medicine, and, not being willing to depend solely upon his father for support while attending medical school, he taught school during the winter of '61-'62.
The call of the North for volunteers interrupted his plans, however, and his patriotism won. On July 23, 1862 he enlisted as a private in Company K. Seventy-second Indiana Regiment. He served until November, 1863, when he was detailed to return home and recruit, and he secured forty-six men, thus filling his company to the maximum. While he was fulfilling this order, on January 23, 1864, he was promoted to the rank of first lieutenant and on April 19, 1864, he rejoined the regiment at Columbus, Tenn., just before the beginning of the Atlanta campaign, and assumed command of his company, the captain being absent on account of wounds. On July 1, 1864 our subject was advanced to the position of captain, and remained in command until the day they were all mustered out of the service. A booklet published on the occasion of the dedication of the Wilder Brigade monument on the battlefield of Chickamauga, the following appears descriptive of Captain Brown:
"Though not past his majority when he became commanding officer of Company K. Captain Brown was a prudent, careful officer, always ready for duty and prompt to perform it. His medical skill proved very valuable to his men and many a boy of Company K escaped a spell of sickness through the careful oversight and wise forethought of his company commander. He was popular with his men, as is evidenced by the fact that when the regiment arrived at Edgefield, Tenn., on the way home at the close of the war, Company K had one hundred and one men on its roll and found twelve recruits in camp waiting to join it.
"Captain Brown is a genial, kind-hearted gentleman, an estimable citizen, highly respected by all who know him. He is generous to a fault, and in the practice of his profession has been to hundreds of sufferers the kind and considerate friend and counselor as well as the patient, skillful, medical attendant. For his old comrades he always has an open heart and cordial greeting, and they all delight to take him by the hand and look into his always pleasant countenance."
In October, 1865, Captain Brown entered the Rush Medical College at Chicago, and was graduated with high honors from the institution on January 24, 1866. On February 12, 1866 he put out his sign in Frankfort, and he has since continued his practice in this city. In June, 1889, he was appointed on the Pension Examining Board of Clinton county, and was chosen its secretary, and served until September, 1893. In June, he was again appointed, and is still performing his duties on the board.
On September 20, 1865 Captain Brown was united in marriage with Laura GENTRY, of Frankfort. Two children have been born to this union: Ada G., who died July 18, 1898, and Walter E.
Fraternally, our subject is a member of the Masonic Order, being Royal Arch Mason. He also is a member of the Grand Army of the Republic. Religiously, he is a Presbyterian, and politically, a Republican.
pp. 398-399 Source II
Transcribed by Tonya
BROWN, Joseph S. D.
No more up-to-date farmer could be found within the boundaries of Ross township, Clinton county than Joseph S. D. Brown, a man who has achieved the position in the community which he enjoys through his industry, neighborliness and honest dealings with those with whom he comes into contact. He has spent a half century on his fine farm here and has accumulated a competency sufficient to retire to the city, but he prefers to remain active and live amid rural scenes, remaining the rest of his life in his own beautiful country home.
Mr. Brown was born in Lehigh county, Penn., near Allentown, April, 17, 1851, on a farm. He is a son of Solomon Brown, a native of the same county and a son of David Brown, also a Pennsylvanian. The family is of German descent, and have always been noted for their thrift and courage. Solomon BROWN married Elizabeth WOODRING who was born in Lehigh county, Penn., also of an old family.
The Brown family left their ancestral hills in the Keystone state in 1864 and came west to Clinton county and bought a farm here. The old log house in which they lived the first few years still stands. In fact, there were two log cabins. The father went to work with a will, cleared and improved his land into a good eighty acre farm, and here he spent the rest of his life, being an influential man in his neighborhood. He reached the advanced age of ninety years. He was a man of splendid constitution and well suited for the life of a frontiersman. His wife died at the age of sixty-eight years. He had a large family of fourteen children, seven of whom are still living: Susan, Lovina, Sarah, living in Pennsylvania; Joseph S. D., subject of this sketch; Mary, Emma and Catherine.
The parents of the above named children were members of the Reformed church. Joseph S. D. Brown was reared on the home farm where he worked when a young man and he received a common school education. He was married in 1874 to Isabella Hannah SHAW, who born in Clinton County and here she was reared and educated. She is a daughter of John F. Shaw who was born in 1836, his death occurring in 1884. The mother died in I 865.
Five children have been born to our subject and wife: Eliza Amanda, wife of Harry SNYDER, of Ross township; James 0., owner of a forty-seven acre farm in Washington township; Laura C. married to Ellis JACOBY, of Washington township; Harriet E. the wife of Albert THRUSH, of Tippecanoe county; and William S., living on the home farm, married to Flora KNAPPENBERGER, has three children, Nelson Joseph, Dorothy and Alberta.
Mr. Brown has devoted his life successfully to general farming, and is now owner of a finely improved place of one hundred and sixty acres, on which stand a commodious twelve-roomed house, a large barn and convenient sheds. Politically he is a Democrat. He and his wife are members of the Presbyterian church. Pages 873 - 874. Source II
Transcribed by Connie
LEWIS BROWN, a highly respected farmer living in Cyclone, Ind., is a self-made man whose success is due entirely to his own efforts. His business career has ever been. An honorable one and is well worthy of emulation. Mr. Brown claims Ohio as the state of his nativity and is descended from ancestors who located in this country in colonial times. His grandfather, John Brown, was a farmer, and reared a family of five children. During the war of 1812, he drove pack horses loaded with provisions to the army. He held membership with the Methodist church, was a democrat in politics, and died at the age of ninety. His wife passed away at the age of seventy-five. Jesse BROWN, father of our subject, was born in Virginia, in 1805, and at the age of eighteen he was married to Mary SHEPARD, who was born in Ohio, in 1807, and was a daughter of Lewis Shepard. Their children are Rachel, Wesley, Temperance, Lewis, Jesse, Amos (who died at Gallatin, Tenn., during the late war) and Absalom. Mr. Brown was a very hard worker, and through his industry accumulated a good farm of 160 acres. He was one of the pioneers of Clinton county, of 1834, living here when the land was undeveloped and the Indians still frequented the neighborhood. During the first winter he cleared and fenced twenty acres. The family lived in true pioneer style, and during the spring they made 500 pounds of maple sugar, working day and night. Both Mr. and Mrs. Brown belonged to the Methodist Episcopal church, and he served as class leader for many years. In early life he was a democrat, but when the war broke out became a republican. His death occurred at the age of seventy-two years. His wife died at the age of forty-two, and in 1848, he married Mrs. Laura (HUFFMAN) BENNETT, by whom he had five children, namely: William Mary, Hannah, Phebe I. and Amanda J. The mother died in 1874, at the age of fifty-five.
Lewis Brown was reared among the wild scenes of the frontier, and during his boyhood hod to walk two miles through the heavy timber to school. He conned his lessons in a log schoolhouse, with puncheon floor and stick chimney, and thus acquired his education. At the age of sixteen he started out make his own living. 0n the 14th of February, 1856, Mr. Brown was united in marriage with Sarah MISNER, who was born in Ohio, October 19, 1835, and is a daughter of Silas and Sarah (CURRY) MISNER. Six children grace their union-Oscar E., Amos E., Mary E., Silas E.. Claude A. and Minnie S. Mr. Brown lived upon rented farms until 1883, when he purchased forty acres of land. He now has eighty acres, under a high state of cultivation a veritable garden spot. He has placed upon it 1,700 rods of tiling, has erected a neat frame residence at a cost of $1,000, and has built good outbuildings, which indicate his progress and practical spirit. He also makes a specialty of raising hogs for market. His home is pleasantly situated only a short distance from eight good markets. Mr. Brown is a supporter of the populist party and for one term served as constable. He and his wife hold membership with the United Brethren church, and are well known and prominent people of the community, who in social circles hold a high position. Their lives have been one of industry and economy, and now they are in comfortable circumstances. Pages 600-601. Source I
Transcribed by Chris Brown
BRUMBAUGH, Owen E.
It is not an easy task to give adequate description of the character of a man who has led an eminently active and busy life in connection with the great legal profession and who has stamped his individuality on the plane of definite accomplishment in one of the most exacting fields of human endeavor. However, there is great satisfaction and much pride in adverting even in this cursory manner to the career of Owen E. Brumbaugh, one of the most able, conscientious and honored workers in the legal profession of Clinton county, and one of the most conspicuous men of Frankfort. In civic life he has been prominent, and he has held the unqualified esteem of his fellow citizens since his entrance into the business life of the city. The fact that Mr. Brumbaugh has been honored with the highest public office in the power of the city is sufficient proof of his able services and reputation of merit.
Owen E. Brumbaugh was born on his father's farm near the town of Rossville, Clinton county, Indiana, and is the eldest child of John W. and Martha (KANABLE) BRUMBAUGH.
John W. Brumbaugh, the father of our subject, was born near the village of Union, Montgomery county, Ohio, and his mother, Martha Kanable, was a native of the state of Pennsylvania. She died, however, when our subject was less than four years of age, leaving him, his father, and his sister, Amanda, who is now the wife of John M. MYLER, of Lebanon. South Dakota. John W. Brumbaugh followed the trade of a carpenter, and many residences and other structures still stand in Clinton county that were constructed by him. He was a self-made man and had considerable influence in his community. He was married the second time to Amanda D. NEHER, and of this union the following children were born: Eliza .A., Susan C., Dennis M., Jacob A., and Martha. In the year 1872 the father, with all of his children, moved to Illinois, settling near the town of Cerro Gordo, and there died in 1874. John w. Brumbaugh led and believed in an honorable and industrious life, and his years were replete with beneficence properly bestowed.
Owen Brumbaugh grew to manhood on his father's farm, working there and attending the common schools. At the age of seventeen he began teaching and continued in the smaller schools until the year 1873, when he accepted better employment in the intermediate and high school departments of the Frankfort city schools. His own education was obtained in the country schools as mentioned before; in the Frankfort normal schools, under the instruction of Prof. E. H. Staley; at the academy in Ladoga, Indiana, under Prof. M. B. Hopkins; at Salem College, Bourbon, Indiana, and at the Bryant and Stratton Business College of Indianapolis.
Although he had made a success of his pedagogic efforts, Mr. Brumbaugh treasured the ambition to enter the legal profession, and utilized every opportunity to study the fundamental principles of the law. It was while engaged in teaching in the Frankfort schools that he entered the law office of Doyal & Gard, were he rapidly gained the prestige and experience that led to his being admitted to the Clinton County Bay in 1877, of which he has been a member ever since.
His own practice commenced in 1878, when he was elected city attorney of Frankfort. His work has been decidedly active since that time, having practiced in the circuit, appellate, supreme and federal courts of Indiana, and also in the courts of adjoining states. His practice has been a general one, including civil, probate and criminal cases, and, to his credit, it must be said that he has won the great majority of cases which he has entered. Consequently, his clients have the greatest confidence in his ability and do not hesitate to repose their full trust in his legal skill.
Mr. Brumbaugh, during the last twelve years, has been honored more than once with public office. As city attorney, president of the school board and as mayor of the city, he has given his constituents and patrons the benefit of his hardest efforts. He has also devoted much of his time to municipal law and municipal affairs and has successfully waged and won many legal controversies for the city of Frankfort. In 1896 Mr. Brumbaugh was nominated for judge of the Clinton circuit court by the Republican party, with which he always affiliated, but together with his colleagues on the ticket, was defeated by force of the demand of the voters of that time for the free coinage of silver at the ratio of sixteen to one, as proposed by the platform of the Democratic party.
Mr. Brumbaugh was married March 22, 1877, to Mary E. MAGEE, daughter of William and Jane MAGEE. Four children were born to them, namely: Ethel M., married to Charles E. COOPER, now farming in Texas; Jessie Jean, married to William K. SPROULE, Jr., cashier of National City Bank of Indianapolis, Olive H., at home, librarian at Frankfort, and John N, who died at the age of five years. Mr. Brumbaugh is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church. Pages 403 404. Source II
Transcribed by Connie
BRYAN, Stephen A.
One of the most prosperous general farmers, stock raisers and feeders of Ross township is Stephen A. Bryan, of an old Clinton county family. He is a man who has thrown the force of his sterling individuality into his vocation and into his efforts to assist in advancing the general public weal (sic), and his efforts have not failed of appreciation by his neighbors and many friends. His name will ever be inseparably linked with that of the community so long honored by his citizenship, whose interests has never had a more zealous promoter. He is one of those men, by no means numerous, who, not caring to be selfish and self-centered desires to exert an influence as they travel the rugged steeps to the end that the world may be made brighter and better by their presence, if only in a minor degree in their immediate vicinities.
Mr. Bryan was born in Madison township a few miles north of Mulberry, December 13. 1859. He is a son of John Bryan, a native of Butler county, O. His father came from Pennsylvania where this family settled in a very early day. They are of Scotch-Irish ancestry. John Bryan grew up in his native community and received his education in the old-time schools, and upon reaching manhood he married Elizabeth LEIBENGUTH, a daughter of Peter LEIBENGUTH, one of the well known early settlers of Madison township, Clinton county. The mother of our subject died in 1866. Four children were born to John Bryan and wife: Peter, Stephen A., L. D. Voorhees, living in Mulberry, this county, and Mrs. Letitia LOVELESS, of Clarks Hill, Ind. John Bryan married for his second wife Caroline ELLIOTT who died leaving three children. Maud, Ibelle and Bessie, the last named being deceased. John Bryan spent his life engaged in farming. Politically he was a Democrat, and he belonged to the Lutheran church.
Stephen A. Bryan was reared on the home farm and he received education in the common schools. He was young when his mother died and he was reared mostly in the home of an uncle, Isaac Bryan. On September 5, 1888 he married Eunice B. HAMILTON, daughter of Francis T. Hamilton, a well known Clinton county citizen. He was born in Butler county, O., September 21, 1839, and in 1842 he was brought to Clinton county, by his parents and here he spent the rest of his life. He was a son of John Hamilton. Upon reaching maturity he married Emma DUKE, who was born in Butler county, 0. To John Hamilton and wife only one child was born, Francis J., mentioned above. The latter was reared on his father's farm and received a common school education. He took tip farming in early life and was successful. John Hamilton's death occurred at the age of seventy-seven years. He and his wife were members of the Baptist church. She died at the advanced age of eighty-six years. He was one of the most extensive farmers in the township. Francis J. Hamilton married Mary BELL, a daughter of James BELL. She was one of a family of eight children, five of whom are still living. Mr. Bell died at the age of seventy-seven years in Frankfort. He was a member of the United Presbyterian church, as was his wife. His wife lived to be eighty-six years old. Three children were born to Francis J. Hamilton and wife: James A., of Frankfort; Mrs. Eunice B. Bryan, wife of our subject; and John who died at the age of twenty-four years. Francis J. Hamilton was an earnest Christian, and he was an elder in his church for thirty years. Mrs. Bryan grew to womanhood in her native community and received a good public school education, also attended college at Otterbein, 0. Two children have been born to our subject and wife: Laura M., who was educated in the Western College at Oxford, O.; and Mary Zelene, now attending college at Jacksonville, Ill.
Stephen A. Bryan began farming when a young man and this has continued to be his life work. He has prospered with the advancing years until he is today one of the most substantial agriculturists and stock men of Ross township, and owns one of the largest and most valuable farms in the township, comprising three hundred and fifty acres, of well improved and well cultivated land. He carries on general farming and stock raising on a large scale. He built in 1907 one of the most modern and attractive rural houses in the county at a cost of over six thousand dollars. Mr. Bryan planned the house himself and it is pronounced by all who have examined it a model of up-to-date architecture. It has a large basement in which a furnace has been installed, bath room, hot and cold water and is, in fact, modernly appointed throughout. He also has a large barn and many other convenient outbuildings, including a substantial barn for cattle feeding. He feeds about one hundred and fifty head annually and large droves of hogs also. He is an excellent judge of all kinds of livestock, not only cattle and hogs, but horses as well, and keeps some fine ones. He and his wife are members of the Presbyterian church, in which he is a deacon. His wife is interested in choir and Sunday school work. Pages 867 869. Source II
Transcribed by Connie
BUNNELL, Noah L.
The life record of this venerable citizen of Moran, Owen township, is one of interest and instruction, for it has been active, always so modulated as to be of the greatest service to those whom it touched. Mr. Bunnell has lived to see the transformation of a great country from the primeval forests and the wild prairies and he has performed well his part in this work. He is one of our oldest native born citizens, and most all of his nearly four score years have been spent here, devoted to farming and merchandising. He grew up amid pioneer conditions and it is indeed interesting to hear him relate incidents of those early days, of the different customs and manners prevailing then, of the hardships and privations, of the wilderness filled with wild animals, and many things unknown to us of the present generation.
Noah L. Bunnell was born January 20, 1834, near the village of Jefferson, Clinton county. He is a son of Noah and Catherine (CONLEY) BUNNELL. The father was born in 1796 in New Jersey where he spent his early years, finally removing to Ohio then to Clinton county, Indiana, where he began as a typical frontiersman, erecting a log cabin and clearing and developing a farm, and there he spent the rest of his life, dying in 1871. He was a wheelwright by trade at which he worked in his earlier years, finally devoting his attention to farming. He was a soldier in the war of 1812. His wife was born in Maryland in 1800, and her death occurred in 1875. To these parents five children were born, Noah L., of this review, the youngest, Harriet, James, Seneca and Mary, all four deceased.
Noah L. Bunnell grew to manhood on the homestead near Jefferson and there he found plenty of hard work to do when a boy, and he received a meager education in the old-time rural schools. He married Julia A. BELL, who was born in Ohio in 1839. She was a daughter of William and Mary (HAMILTON) BELL, and to this union five children were born: Mary C., James, Elver, Clyde and Thomas (deceased).
Mr. Bunnell began life for himself on a farm where he remained until 1864 then entered the mercantile field at Kilmore, Clinton county, where he remained three years, then went to Lafayette, where he remained in the same business until the Vandalia railroad was built through Clinton county, whereupon he returned here and laid out the town of Moran. Owen township, which was first called Bunnellsville, after our subject, but later was named Moran. Mr. Bunnell has remained at this place ever since and has built up a large and lucrative trade with the surrounding country, his store being a favorite gathering place for the people of this vicinity in their spare time, for they have always received honest, fair and courteous treatment at the hands of our subject. He carries an up-to-date stock of general merchandise at all seasons and his prices are laways (sic) reasonable. He is also owner of a valuable and productive eighty acre farm adjoining Moran, on which land Mr. Bunnell has a pleasant and well furnished home. At present he is assisted in his store by his son, Elver.
Politically, Mr. Bunnell is a Republican and has always been faithful in his support of the party. Religiously, he belongs to the Methodist Episcopal church.
pp. 626-627 Source II
Transcribed by Tonya
BURGET, Eugene O.
Prominent in the affairs of Frankfort, distinguished as one of the leading men of Clinton county, and enjoying distinctive prestige in business circles far beyond the limits of the community honored by his citizenship, Eugene O. Burget, of the People's Life Insurance Company, is entitled to specific mention in a work such as this volume, which is to present to the reader the life details of the men who have made for the progress of the county, men in every walk of life, and in every profession who have contributed part of their lives for the good of the community of which this is a history. Mr. Burget is a sound business man, a man of excellent ideals, and a man devoted to the duty which has come to rest upon his shoulders. In the financial history of the county Mr. Burget has been especially prominent, and his career in commercial life has been one of steady advancement.
Eugene O. Burget was born January 5, 1869 at Burget's Corner, this county, and he was the son of William M. and Permelia (MOTT) BURGET. William M. Burget was born in Johnson township, Clinton county, on June 28, 1844, and he was the son of William and Lydia (KEEVER) BURGET, and the grandson of Emanuel BURGET.
Emanuel Burget, Jr., was born in Butler county, Ohio, February, 9, 1839. His great-grandfather BURGET came from England and was killed by the Indians while he was swimming the Big Miami river in an attempt to reach his blockhouse. Emanuel Burget, father of our subject's grandfather, was an early settler of Butler county, O., and a soldier of the Revolution. He married Catherine GARNER. His son, William Burget, was born in Butler county, O., and was married to Lydia Keever, daughter of John KEEVER and became the father of the following children: Margaret C., Emanuel, Elizabeth J., William M., Rachel E., John H., and Samuel. William M. was a valiant soldier in Company H, Eighty-sixth Indiana Volunteer Infantry. Elizabeth J. was the first white child born in Johnson township. The parents were Baptists in their religious faith, and the father, at first a Democrat, became a Republican on account of the war, and was elected justice of the peace eighteen consecutive years. He lost his wife in 1853, and he died in 1881.
Emanuel Burget was brought to Clinton county in 1839, before he was a year old. He was educated in the old log school house, but secured a fair education. He enlisted March 4, 1865, in Company C, Fifty-eighth Indiana Volunteer Infantry and was assigned to the Fourteenth army corps, army of the Cumberland. He passed through the campaigns of North Carolina, Maryland, Virginia and Kentucky: was a member of the pontoon detail, and was constantly skirmishing for many weeks. He was honorably discharged July 25, 1865. In politics he was a Republican, was justice of the peace, and was once nominated for county auditor. He married Naomi STROUP, the daughter of Jacob and Naomi (DEBINGTON) STROUP, and the children born to this union were: William J., Cinderella, who died in 1882, and Nora. On June 7, 1894 Emanuel Burget was nominated for county auditor and in November of that year was elected by a majority of five hundred and seventy, and he took possession of his office November 15, 1894.
William M. Burget enlisted on August 13, 1862 in Company H. Eighty-sixth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and was assigned to the army of the Cumberland. He fought through the campaigns of Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama, and took an active part in the battles of Stone River, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge and Knoxville. At the latter place he was taken sick and was in a hospital a short time and then was furloughed home to recover. Having recuperated he rejoined his regiment immediately after the fall of Atlanta, and later took part in the battles of Columbia, Franklin and Nashville, and was honorably discharged June 6, 1865. Politically, he is a Republican.
William M. Burget was thrice married. His first wife was Permelia MOTT, daughter of Sayres MOTT, and of this union the following children were born: May, born May 15, 1867, died September 20, 1868; Eugene O., our subject; Lula, born February 13, 1872; and Sarah, born July 10, 1874, and died the same day. The second marriage of Mr. Burget was to Sarah LONGFELLOW, daughter of John LONGFELLOW, and of this union was born Leon V., June 10, 1880, died August 14, 1881. The third marriage of our subject's father was to Mrs. Hester J. MCCREARY, daughter of John M. and Hester (MOTT) DUNN, and this union was blessed with the birth of four children: John P., October 16, 1884; Earnest D., January 2; 1886; Minnie T., April 3, 1887, and George E., May 18, 1888.
Eugene O. Burget received a good education in his youth, and later graduated at the state normal school at Terre Haute. Thinking that his excellent education would be of more value when supplemented by teaching, he entered that profession, and soon became principal of schools at Scircleville and again at Hillisburg. In this work Mr. Burget was successful. He was endowed with those qualities which make a good educator, and he had the happy faculty of imparting to others the knowledge he himself possessed. In 1894 Mr. Burget was appointed to the office of deputy auditor of Clinton county, and in 1902 was elected to the office of auditor. For four years he filled this position acceptably to all his fellow citizens, performing well the duties required of him. After the expiration of his term he accepted a position in the Clinton County Bank as assistant cashier, and there he stayed one year. In 1907 he took a place with the People's Life Insurance Company as secretary, and since has held that position in a very efficient and capable manner.
On June 28, 1889, he was united in marriage to Carrie BOYLE, who was born in Michigantown, Indiana, on December 18, 1875, a daughter of Josiah L. and Mary BOYLE, both of whom are now living in Frankfort.
Fraternally, Mr. Burget is quite prominent in Frankfort. He is a Mason, a member of the York Rite and the Shrine. He belongs to the Knights of Pythias, the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and the Improved Order of Red Men. In politics he is a Republican, and in religious matters is a Methodist.
pp. 389-391 Source II
Transcribed by Tonya
BURFORD, John H.
From various pars (sic) of the Hoosier state good citizens have come to Clinton county and established permanent homes. Very few, comparatively speaking, have cared to move back to where they came from or to some other locality, having found here all that they desired to make life worth living. This has been especially true with farmers, for here they have found as fine a soil as the state affords and good roads and railroad facilities, in fact, all that goes to make a civilized community. One of these gentlemen who is deserving of special notice here is John H. Burford, for many years a successful merchant, now farming in Owen township.
Mr. Burford was born October 3, 1849, in Harrison county, Indiana, on the Ohio river. He is a son of Cary and Ann (SHIELD) BURFORD. The father was born April 5, 1806, in Kentucky, and as a child, went with his parents to Floyd county, Indiana, where he grew to manhood. He married in Harrison county, Indiana. Later he moved there and engaged in the mercantile business. He subsequently moved to Illinois where he spent the rest of his life, dying in 1879. The mother of the subject of this sketch was born in Tennessee, February 22, 1806, near the city of Nashville. Cary Burford devoted most of his life to the mercantile business with success. Politically he was a Democrat up to 1861, after that was a Republican. His family consisted of twelve children: Mary Jane, Catherine C., Margaret P., Elizabeth and Marion, all deceased, and Jessie M., Carrie S., Nancy H., William T., and James C., all living. The eleventh child died in infancy unnamed. John H., of this sketch is the youngest.
John H. Burford received a common school education. On November 23, 1880, he married Martha MERRIFIELD, who was born December 12, 1849, in McLean county, Illinois. She is a daughter of Ortha and Providence (CONOWAY) MERRIFIELD. She spent her girlhood in Illinois and received a common school education.
Two children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Burford: Ortha R., born September 16, 1883, now assisting his father in operating the home farm; and Clara C., born in 1887.
Mr. Burford began life for himself in the mercantile business, which he followed with very gratifying results for about twelve years, but for some time he has been devoting his attention exclusively to general farming and stock raising. He owns one hundred and sixty acres of valuable and well improved land in Section 11, Owen township, all tillable but fifteen acres, which is in woods. He built part of his home and all his buildings are substantial and convenient. He keeps a good grade of livestock. Feeding large numbers of cattle and Duroc hogs. He is very comfortably fixed and owns a standard make, five-passenger automobile. Politically he is a Progressive, and is an intelligent voter, keeping well informed on current events.
pp. 612-613 Source II
Transcribed by Tonya
EMANUEL BURGET, present county auditor and thriving farmer of Johnson township, Clinton county, Ind., was born in Butler county, Ohio, Febrnarv 9, 1839. His great-grandfather Burget came from Enland and was killed by the Indians while he was swimming the Big Miami river in an attempt to reach his block-house. Emanuel Burget, grandfather of our subject, and an early settler of Butler county, Ohio, was a soldier of the Revolution and married Catherine GARNER. His son, William Burget, was born in Butler county, Ohio, married Lydia KEEVER, daughter of John KEEVER, and became the father of the following children: Margaret C., Emanuel, Elizabeth J., William M., Rachel E., John H. and Samuel. William was a gallant soldier in company H, Eighty-sixth I. V. I. Elizabeth J. was the first white child born in Johnson township. The parents were Baptists in their religious faith, and the father, at first a democrat, became a republican on account of the war, and was elected Justice of the peace eighteen consecutive years. He lost his wife in 1853, and he followed her to the grave in 1881.
Emanuel Burget was brought to Clinton county, Ind., in 1839, before he was a year old. He was educated in the old log school-house, but secured a fair education, and now owns eighty acres of good land. He enlisted, March 4, 1865, in company C, Fifty-eighth I. V. I., and was assigned to the Fourteenth army corps, army of the Cumberland. He passed through the campaigns of North Carolina, Maryland, Virginia and Kentucky; was a member of the pontoon detail, and .was constantly skirmishing for many weeks. He was honorably discharged July 25, 1865, and now receives a pension of six dollars per month. In politics he is a republican, has been a justice of the peace, and was once nominated for county auditor. He married Naomi STROUP, daughter of Jacob and Naomi (DEBINGTON) STROUP, and a sister of Jacob Stroup, whose biography appears on another page. The children born to this union were named William J., Cinderella, who died in 1882, and Nora. Mr. Burget is an industrious and enterprising citizen and farmer, and he and family are highly respected in the cornmunity in which they live. He was again nominated for county auditor June 7, 1894, and elected in November by a majority of 570 by the republican party, and he took possession of the office November 15, 1894. pp. 601 - 602. Source I
Transcribed by Connie
BURGET, William M.
WILLIAM M. BURGET, an ex-soldier and a well-known farmer, is a resident of Johnson township, Clinton county, Ind., where he was born June 28, 1844. He is son of William and Lydia (KEEVER) BURGET, and grandson of Emanuel Burget. On August 13, 1862, he enlisted in company H, Eighty-sixth Indiana volunteer infantry, and was assigned to the army of the Cumberland. He fought through the campaigns of Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia and Alabama, and took an active part in the battles of Stone River, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge and Knoxville. At the latter place he was taken sick and was in hospital a short time, and then was furloughed home to recover; having recuperated, he rejoined his regiment immediately after the fall of Atlanta, and later took part in the battles of Columbia, Franklin and Nashville; was honorably discharged June 6, 1865, and is now drawing a pension of $10 per month. In politics he is a stanch republican, but is not ambitious for office. His farm contains forty-three acres and is well taken care of.
Mr. Burget has been thrice married. His first wife was Miss Permelia MOTT, daughter of Sayres MOTT, and to this marriage were born May, born May 15, 1867, died September 20, 1868; Eugene O. , born January 5, 1869; Lula, born February 13, 1872, and Sarah, born July 10,1874, died same day. Mrs. Burget was a member of the Church of God and was a most estimable lady. The second marriage of Mr. Burget was to Miss Sarah LONGFELLOW, daughter of John LONGFELLOW, and to this union was born Leon V., born June 10, 1880, died August 14, 1881. The mother was a member of the Christian church. The third marriage of Mr. Burget was to Mrs. Hester J. McCREARY, daughter of John M. and Hester (MOTT) DUNN, and this union has been blessed with the birth of four children -- John P., born October 16, I884; Earnest D., born January 2. 1886; Minnie T., born April 3, 1887, and George E., born May 18, 1888. Eugene 0. Burget has been engaged in teaching in Johnson township for seven years. He graduated from the State Normal college, which he attended two years, and is the present deputy auditor of Clinton county. p. 602. Source I
Transcribed by Connie
BURNS, Ed H.
ED H. BURNS, of the firm of Staley & Burns, proprietors of the Frankfort Evening News, and of the Weekly banner, is the son of Joseph and Mary Burns, and was born at Montezuma, Parke county, Ind., September 22, 1863. After completing his course of study in the schools of his native place, Mr. Burns diligently devoted his attention to learning the printers trade. After serving as devil for one year, he took a two year course of study in the university of Michigan, at Ann Arbor; returning, he worked at the printers trade and local newspaper work at Clinton and Chrisman, Ill., and in1885, established the Reporter in his native town, which journal he sold out and came to Frankfort and purchased an interest in the Banner, which Mr. Cheadle editing that paper for a year; and in May, 1889, he purchased of E. T. Staley his interest in the Evening News, which had been established the year previous.
In December, 1886, Mr. Burns was married to Miss Flora DONALDSON, who bore him three children Robert F., Edward H. and Blanch.
The enterprise of Staley & Burns in conducting the Daily Evening News, is a most commendable one. The News is a bright, sparkling daily, and always contains the gist of the news of the city, county and state. It is a deserving paper, is worthy of the patronage bestowed upon it, and would be a credit to any city in Indiana. In 1889, the firm of Staley & Burns purchased the Saturday Banner and consolidated the two offices. The Saturday Banner, their weekly publication, ranks among the best of weekly publications in the state and is indicative of the enterprise and progressive ideas of the publishers.
pp. 870 871 Source I
Transcribed by Connie
BURNS, Joseph I.
One of the most interesting men to spend an hour or so in conversation with in Forest township, Clinton county, is Joseph I. Burns. He talks interestingly because he is a man of much experience and during his long life has been a spectator to many happenings out of the ordinary; and, further than that he possesses the happy faculty of being able to recall reminiscences and tell of them in well chosen words. During his residence here of over a half century he has lived to see momentous changes in every respect and he has taken part in them. He ranked for many decades among the best known carpenters and builders in this section of the country, and he is now discharging in a commendable manner the duties of justice of the peace and those of secretary of the Forest Telephone Company. There is additional interest in setting forth his life record in this volume because of his career as a soldier for the Union during the dark days of the sixties.
Mr. Burns was born September 19, 1842, in Hamilton county, O., and there his early boyhood days were spent, he having been nine years of age when he removed with the family to Clinton county in 1851, where he has resided continuously ever since with the exception of three years. He is a son of Peter and Nancy (INGERSOLL) BURNS. The father was born February 13, 1818, in Hamilton county, O., and there also occurred the birth of the mother on December 25, 1817. The former died on May 16, 1874, and the death of the latter occurred on July 29, 1890. Peter Burns received a good education for the early days in the Buckeye state and he was a school teacher for ten years, then turned his attention to general farming, which he followed the rest of his life. His family, consisted of ten children, only four of whom are living at this writing, namely: Frances M. and Sarah Ann, both deceased; Joseph I., of this review; William A. (dec.), Elizabeth (dec.), David, Lydia (dec.), Mary Ellen (dec.), James A. and Emily A.
Joseph I. Burns grew up on the home place, and, being the son of a pioneer he found plenty of hard work to do when a boy, consequently his early, schooling was limited to about six months in a log school house, equipped with its usual puncheon floor, slab seats, greased paper for window panes, and open fire-place, but he has become a well informed man through contact with the world and by wide home reading.
Mr. Burns was married on October 29, 1865, to Lucy T. LINDLE, who was born in Ripley county, Ind., December 13, 1841. She is a daughter of Samuel and Elizabeth (CARRICK) LINDLE. These parents were born, reared and married in England, and there they resided until after their first child was born, finally emigrating to America and locating in Ripley county. Thence they moved to Henry county, this state, when Mrs. Burns was five years old, and from there they removed to Clinton county in 1865. They spent there lives on a farm. Mrs. Burns received a common school education.
To Mr. and Mrs. Burns five children were born: Hannah E., born May 6, 1867, married H. W. COCHRAN, now residing in Forest, this county, taught school for several years: Lillian B., born September 20, 1869, married Payton BLANCHE, and they live in Warren township, this county; Anna E., born March 2, 1872, died July 29, 1873; Laura L., born March 11, 1874, died December 28, 1899, Samuel C., born December 2, 1877, followed teaching for fourteen years, married Maude E. OGLE, now engaged in merchandising in the village of Forest.
Joseph I. Burns learned the carpenter's trade when a young man and this he followed successfully for a period of thirty-three years, being known as one of the most skillful and conscientious workmen in Clinton county, and many building of all kinds stand in this locality as monuments to his art as a builder. He gave up his trade some eight years ago since which time he has been secretary of the Forest Telephone Company, which position he still holds, his long retention being sufficient evidence of his satisfactory service. He was elected justice of the peace of Forest township in 1906 and is still ably discharging the duties of this office, his decisions being noted for their fairness to all concerned and for a clear interpretation of the law. He is also engaged in the real estate business under the firm name of Burns & Johnson. He owns a home in Forest and several lots, besides twenty-five acres in Forest township, all tillable and well improved in every way, with tile, fencing, etc. His land is rented.
Mr. Burns has been a Mason for a period of forty-one years, being a charter member of the local lodge, the Star, of which he was secretary for a period of thirteen years. He is also a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and has been financial secretary of the local lodge for a period of nineteen years; also a member of the Encampment and has been treasurer of the latter. He is a member of the Rebekahs. He was district deputy of this county for a period of eight years for the last named lodge. Politically he is a loyal Democrat. He was township assessor in Johnson township for a period of six years.
On August 5, 1862, Mr. Burns enlisted at Michigantown, Clinton county, in Company G, Eighty-sixth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, called then the "Crazy Eighty-Sixth," under Captain Segar. Mr. Burns saw considerable hard service, being in many engagements, including Perryville, Franklin, Nashville, Chattanooga and many skirmishes. He was with the troops in Alabama and Florida. Falling sick he was brought north to Louisville. He was honorably discharged on June 6, 1865, at Nashville, Tennessee. Pages 546 548 Source II
Transcribed by Connie
BURROUGHS, William Frank
It seems that there is no start in life which so well prepares a man for his future career, no matter what he may choose to follow, as the boyhood years spent on the farm; this is not strange to the contemplative mind, for in the first place the boy reared next to nature, to the fresh soil, surrounded by the clear air and amidst the growing, blooming vegetation, will be stronger physically and mentally than his city bred brother; and all will agree that health is the first prerequisite in the chase for success in this world. Many a man has been handicapped, submerged and defeated because of lack of it. Another thing, the farmer boy knows few of the temptations that lead to ruin which the city boy has to combat almost from the very cradle; the former uses his energy in wrestling with the plow, the unbroken colt, the quick-growing sprouts, and many other things in his every--day life, while all this pent-up energy of the city lad must seek outlet in various channels, so he gets into trouble or at least neglects to property direct his energies in life's affairs and when manhood comes he is left behind by his stronger and more self-reliant, self-assured country contemporary.
One of Clinton county's worthy young men who sprang front the rural districts is the present efficient deputy county clerk. William Frank Burroughs, who was born in Jefferson township, Boone county, Indiana, on a farm June 25, 1875. He is a son of John Henry and Mary Adaline (CARTER) BURROUGHS. The father was born September 30, 1843, on a farm which his father had entered from the government in the early settlement of this state and which is located in Franklin township, Montgomery, county. The paternal grandparents of the subject of this review, were Uriel and Leannah (BRAMBLETT) BURROUGHS. Uriel Burroughs was a descendant of an early Virginia family, his progenitors having emigrated to the Old Dominion during the great Cromwell's reign in England, and from that remote period to the present the name Burroughs has been a more or less prominent one in Virginia. Members of this old family have proven themselves to be genuinely American in spirit and patriotism, and their names are to be found on the rosters of our armies in all our wars, some of them having won distinction as soldiers in the Revolutionary war.
Uriel Burroughs left his home on the Atlantic seaboard in the year 1813 and, with other westward-looking frontiersmen of that time, plunged into the wilderness and kept his course toward the setting sun until he reached Scott county, Kentucky, and in 1826 moved to Montgomery county, Indiana, where, being attracted by the richness of the soil and the general beauty of the landscape and having the sagacity to foresee a great future for the Wabash county, he decided to establish the future home of the family here, and he accordingly entered wild land from the government, selecting a fine tract in what is now Franklin township. He was a man of courage and grit, one whom hardships had little to appall, so he soon had the heavy timber cleared away and young crops growing. He prospered with advancing years and became one of the leading general farmers of that section of the country and there he spent the residue of his days, living there some forty-four years, passing to his rest in 1869. His wife, who shared with him the hardships and privations of a life on the then frontier of American civilization, was a Kentuckian by birth. Her death occurred in 1848. She preceded her husband to the grave many years. The subject of this sketch is still in possession of the old rifle carried by his grandfather Burroughs, which he used in killing all kinds of wild game in the pioneer days. It is of the ancient hammered barrel type. Politically, Uriel Burroughs was a Democrat, and in religious matters a Baptist. He is remembered as a plain, honest, hard-working man, neighborly and hospitable.
John H. Burroughs, father of our subject, grew to manhood on the home farm. Being the son of a pioneer, he found plenty of hard work to do as soon as he became of proper age, and he worked on the home place during his boyhood, attending the neighborhood schools during the brief winter months, receiving such educational advantages as was common in the country during that early period. He turned his attention to general farming and stock raising when a young man and continued to follow these lines with ever continued success until a few years ago, when. having accumulated a competency, he retired from active work and is now spending his old age in quiet, maintaining a comfortable residence at Shannondale, Montgomery county. His wife, known in her maidenhood as CARTER, was born in Owen county, Indiana, March and there spent her childhood, and she and Mr. Burroughs were married in the year 1873. After only five years of happy married life she was summoned to her eternal rest June 30, 1878, when William F. Burroughs, our subject, was three years old. She was buried at the village of Shannondale, Montgomery, county. Besides our subject one other child was born to John H. Burroughs and wife, Clifford O., whose birth occurred on November 3, 1876. He died on April 18, 1904, when nearly twenty-eight years of age. The father of these children is a Democrat, but he has never been a public man, devoting his attention to his farming industry and his home, He is well known and well liked in his vicinity.
William F. Burroughs grew to manhood on the home farm, as already indicated, and he did his share of the work there when a boy. He was given excellent educational advantages. After passing through the public schools of his home community he attended the Valpariso Normal School, at Valpariso, Indiana, later attending Wabash College at Crawfordsville for one term. He had taken a general literary course, preparing himself for a teacher, and after leaving school he followed that line of endeavor for a period of sixteen years in Montgomery and Clinton counties, where he won an envied reputation as an educator and during which period his services were in great demand in both the counties named, part of his teaching having been done in the latter county. For ten years he was principal of the schools at Colfax, giving eminent satisfaction, as his long retention in that important position would indicate. He did a splendid work in building up the schools at that place and was popular with both pupils and patrons. He was progressive in his methods and kept fully abreast of the times in all that pertained to his work. Finally tiring of the monotony of the school room and taking an active interest in public affairs he became deputy clerk in the office of the circuit court January 1, 1912, the duties of which he is discharging at this writing in a highly acceptable manner.
Politically, Mr. Burroughs is a Democrat and has ever been loyal to the party of his ancestors. He is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church. Fraternally, he belongs to the Masonic order, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, the Subordinate and the Encampment degrees, and is also a member of the Modern Woodmen af (sic) America.
Mr. Burroughs was married on August 12, 1903, to Nellie G. HAMPTON, who was born in Sugar Creek township, Montgomery county, Indiana, in October, 1881. She grew to womanhood there and received a good education in the public schools. She is a daughter of Morgan and Amanda HAMPTON, both of whom were children of early settlers in Montgomery county.
Two children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Burroughs, John H., Jr., who is attending school, and William M., the youngest. Pages 410 413. Source II
Transcribed by Connie
BUTLER, Thomas Noble
Live stock business strongly rivals agriculture as a means of prosperity in Clinton county. So closely allied are the two, however, that men invariably carry one as a side line to the other. Mr. Butler is engaged almost exclusively in stock breeding, and he operates on a large scale. Some of the best horses and stallions in the northern part of the state are in his possession, which fact has given him an excellent reputation among the stock men of the state and the country.
Thomas Noble Butler was born in Edinburg, Indiana, August 12, 1862, the son of Daniel and Caroline (FLOOD) BUTLER. Daniel Butler was a native of the Buckeye state, and when but a young man he came to Johnson county, Indiana. In 1863 he moved to Lebanon, Indiana, where he entered the warehouse and distillery business and engaged in horse breeding. He died there in 1873. Mrs. Caroline Butler died in 1908. Daniel Butler was a loyal Republican, and attended the Presbyterian church. He was a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and was a thirty-second degree Mason.
Our subject received a common school education in the city of Lebanon, and in 1895 he came to Frankfort, where he began the livery business. In 1901 he sold out and moved back to Lebanon, continuing the same trade, Again, in 1904, he returned to Frankfort, where he is now located, giving his time to the breeding profession, also the grain and feed trade. Mr. Butler owns quite a number of fine stallions, chief among them being "Carter B.," register number 6304, and "Famous," number 67028. The former is a black French draft stallion, and has sired nearly three hundred colts, over ninety per cent. Of his services. The later stallion is also much in demand and is equal to "Carter B." Mr. Butler has builded a reputation on these two animals alone. The first season for "Famous" was productive of sixty colts.
Mr. Butler was married to Carrie SHAW, the daughter of John M. SHAW, of Boone county. She died in 1900. Two children were left to Mr. Butler: Ruby CUNNINGHAM, of Indianapolis, and Mary, of Lebanon. Mr. Butler was married the second time to Jane SWADNER.
Fraternally, Mr. Butler is a member of the Improved Order of Red Men, the Woodmen of the World, and the Loyal Order of Moose. Religiously, he attends the Christian church, and politically, is a Republican.
pp. 537-538 Source II
Transcribed by Tonya
Source I: A Portrait And Biographical Record of Boone and Clinton Counties, Ind., ... Containing Biographical Sketches of Many Prominent and Representative Citizens, Together with Biographies and Portraits of all the Presidents of the United States, and Biographies of the Governors of Indiana. Published 1895 by A.W. Bowen & Co. in Chicago.
Source II : History of Clinton County . With Historical Sketches of Representative Citizens and Genealogical Records of Many of the Old Families. By Hon. Joseph Claybaugh. Published 1913 by A. W. Bowen & Company Indianapolis, Indiana
© Connie Rushing 1998/99/2001 © Chris Brown 1998/99/2001
Copying is permitted for noncommercial, educational use by individual scholars and libraries. This message must appear on all copied material. All commercial use requires permission of the author.