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Record of School Visitations While County Superintendent 1879 - 1881

W. H. McIntosh

Submitted by: Arlene Goodwin,

Butler Township:

In this township there are six school houses, placed upon sites generally of one acre each, three of these are enclosed with board fences and No. 1 had plank walk from school house to the roadside. There are forest trees for shade to a portion of the building and at No.6 there is a well on the site. Three of the out houses are in bad condition and three are reported fair. The practice of building the double is very objectionable. They should be removed from each other as far as practicable. Buildings are new, many of brick, in excellent condition and well rated. The seats are from different manufactures and all good rooms are well lighted and in two, there has been effort made to secure whole room air. In two discipline is good, in two, it is medium and it two it is poor. All Have regular programs. Classes range from sixteen to nineteen. In three, the register is well kept. There is a dictionary in each school, some of them need to be replaced by new ones. There are excellent black boards, chairs and desks. The school showing the highest enrollment is No. 2 which has 42, the lowest is No 5, whit 19, the enrollment if the schools in181. Of these, 130 study arithmetic, 74 in geography, 52 in grammar, 15 in physiology and 10 in U. S. History. In two schools, the books are uniform and those prescribed by Board of Education.

NO. 1: As people have general resemblance’s yet individual differences so schools have an identity of their own. House _____, children and teacher are unlike in the same township at No. 1 you enter a large well-lighted room, near the door stands a good stove, the pipe runs high and well secured to the rear of the apartment where it enters a flue in the wall. Upon a fine blackboard is placed the programs of daily exercises. The furniture of modern make exhibits marks of hard usage. A hand bell not used to call classes stand upon the desk. Robert McDougal has long been known as a district school-teacher and exhibits in teaching many desirable traits. Occupying his arm chair in front of his classes he gives to them almost exclusive attention and receives from them the same. His voice is subdued and kind, his manner is composed and engaged. Writing is given half hours time. Teacher sets copies in books made from fools cap paper. The Capital D, as the lesson was resolved into principles upon the board below the chart. Large pupils set worthy examples in behavior and diligence. Limited whispering is permitted.

NO. 2: In the framed school house at Butler Center before the hour of taking up," we find F. W. Merica a young, faithful and energetic teacher, glad to learn and apt in application. The room was swept clean, and the apartment was warmed to a healthful temperature, each pupil entering took his seat. The morale of the school is excellent, honorable alike to themselves, their teacher and to parents. Upon the board there is an Honor Roll for spelling, containing names of 16 pupils, 100 in that branch. Several pupils in Fifth Reader show qualities whose cultivation will make good readers. One in a class in Physiology gave a recitation which would do him credit in any school. There are no obsolete text books in this school. A fine class numbering eight young people prepared example upon the board during the recitation of a smaller class in arithmetic from slates. The children recited clearer clerity and spirit. A class of seven, leaning words of three syllables, by eagerness *_____ on a slow pupil show influence of numbers. A large class in spelling words of three syllables, pronounce only each syllable, the plan is worth a trial.

NO. 3: Trustee Broughton and myself walked from No. 2 house to No. 3. Here we found a new building recently completed and for the first time in use. A quantity of old firewood lies scattered upon a part of the school-ground. The want of wood houses is seen in the wartage of enough fuel to have built them. Lessons in Mental arithmetic showed analytical drill. A class of four in Physiology gave a well-nigh perfect recitation by topic. The want of comform school-books retards the school. The final impression is favorable and John Beard, a young teacher will find pleasure in a careful adjustment of his inherent powers to render his instruction efficient.

NO. 4: A ride upon the morning Eel River train to Cedar Creek, station and a lengthy walk southwest brings us to the Holbrook school house. Without and within all is neat and well arranged. The teacher C. W. Smith has but fairly got started. The pupils show good behavior, order is irreproachable. The teacher endeavors to have rules of reading memorized and the more applicable. There is a medley of school books. Among them are Roy’s Highes Arithmetic and The Eclectic Geography- the late books being new raises the question by what agency were thus introduced. We see the teacher taking a book from a pupil requiring him to ‘look over’ with another and think that to supply each teacher with the books he has to have during the term and to return them in good shape would be unobjectionable action by the Trustee. Teaches give preponderance of time and energy to the recitation and forget that its chief aim is to excite and direct study. It is a power with the experienced by and awkward perplexing duty to the novice. The scheme of recitation is earnestly commended to the careful study and patient in active of the teacher.

NO. 5: Eastward two miles along a winding road, then northward a short distance on the Auburn and Ft. Wayne road bring us to a neat, new house, nicely furnished. The school in numbers is small the behavior and diligence of a half dozen larger pupils challenges that of ___ but pupils in the town schools. M. J. Weller, a young teacher’s no sluggard at work. His school consulting their own interest are industrious and leave him to exclusive effort and good profitable class instruction. If the order is independent of him, he is indeed fortunate in having so pleasant a school. If it is due to his influence, it is very creditable to him, considerable time is given to each class yet he does not seem to get behind as is frequently the case. Classes in Geography and grammar recite well. Signals are low and distinct. The tap of pencil suggesting inattention recalls the mind.

NO. 6: Here is another new house, the windows are provided with muslin curtains, there is an excellent stove, and the teachers desk is one of the best yet found. The location is solitary and the site has timber land on there side furnishing ample play ground. There were abut twenty pupils present under instruction of Charles Dugun, whose five scholarship has not for the first time been brought into play for the benefit of others. He knows that the methods by which he studied to be for a time impracticable here. There’s new of constant vigilance, frequent reminder, cordial aid and hearty encouragement. Primary teaching requires and in born aptitude. There is a belief in the Educational paradox, that small children learning first principles need only medium teachers. Were not believed in No. 6, judging by choice of teacher as Mr. Dugan’s instruction is simple, natural and praise worthy. Slates are brought into general use, the children are teachable and there is promise of the performance of valuable work.

Jackson Township:

No. 1: Shortly after the commencement of the school on the first day, in this district, myself and Metro Brandon arrived to the school-house and entering without ceremony found a very pleasant school in session under charge of Calvin H. Brown who has commenced his fourth term in this place. The condition of the house and outbuilding is neat and there are no evidence of vandalism within or without. The house is well heated well lighted, can be kept warm in the coldest weather and provision has been attempted for ventilation. The discipline is uniformly good and there is no resort to corporal punishment. Recitations are properly conducted, obedience is prompt and the register is well kept. Monthly examinations have been recorded and data left for the guidance of the next teacher which by the district’s good fortune is himself. John Carper Director was present and is not only a good officer but is alive to the advantages of a good school. No. 1 may have many equals in the county but few superiors.

No. 2: Leaving the pupils at No. 1 quietly eating their dinners at their seats we drove to No. 2. The site of a half acre is unenclosed, and is without well, wood-house or trees for shade. The house is old and antiquated in seat, board and arrangement and a new building is much needed. The school makes a promising beginning under the supervision of J. J. Walters who holds a second grade license and who has been a student at the Valparasio school. pupils were orderly, industrious and attentive to whatever was said to them and they left the school ground for home very quietly.

No. 3: After a pleasant walk along the road on the east bank of Cedar Creek, we found the commodious brick house known as No. 3, a group of young people stood about the door and the youngsters were making the woods to ring with cheery shout and laughter. Within we found Alexander Provines and the trustee. School opened with a song an soon the pupils were busy with book , slate and in recitation. The furniture is new and good. Proper text books have been cheerfully supplied and clarification is made convenient. There are various indications of parental interest in the school’s success. Pupils show a cheerful disposition and the teacher is pleasant and earnest. Before the house, there is a good well with pump and excellent water, The comfort of this fixture is appreciated and it is properly treated.

No. 4: Following a circuitous route on horseback in rain and wind, I reached No. 4 and found the school in session. Clouds cleared for the time, the wind fell and the sun shone out. There was mud all around and about the school premises. There was neither scraper, nor broom and the pleasing effect of new furniture was maned by dirt, strewn-floor, A broken stove and a miserable blackboard were defects some to be remedied. Observing the school, the situation became more cheerful. Byron Grube had been a diligent student and well understands the value of leaving, the priced acquisition and so instructs earnestly and thoroughly. He teaches reading by example, and governs by cautions. He regards programs as useless without a clock, valuable with one and calls classes by signals. Old book are being replaced by new ones as parents learn the necessity.

No. 5: Entering the school-room, we found J. B. Scott busy attempting and oral language lesson with poor success. During girl’s recess, a class of small boys were instructed form Webb’s Directed Cards and showed themselves attentive an docile, Mr. Scott has sought to qualify himself or his work and has had a dozen years experience in the school room. There were present 27 boys and 10 girls. The pupils are rated by classes and pupils in reading rise from seat to read. Small children are called out to recitation. The condition of the house and its surroundings is bad. Forty-four pupils are registered. There was a deficiency of books, which public spirit and private interest will rectify in time.

No. 6: We find within doors a clean, roomy ventilated apartment, occupied by nearly 40 children, Classes called and dismissed trod the floor lightly as possible. There was no disorder, no whispering and much silent study. Government is not obtrusive yet all prevading and powerful. S. M. Highs is fairly entitled to the appellation of "Teacher." His control is full of kindness, his methods are admirable, it is curious to see the children, whispering request for aid at classes and there are not interruptions. Time between recitations is ____ in attending to general business. Instruction is given in low tones and to a purpose. School is called at 8:50 and a chapter is read from the Bible. Dinner is taken at seats. A class in Decimals did creditable work in writing numbers on the board. The people of this district have great confidence in the teacher and observation proves it well place, the services of such men and valuable and under their least common school education realizes its designs.

No. 7: The close of a stormy day finds the trustee and myself comfortably housed at the home of John Boots, whose energy in deriving and perfecting his system of improving highway, had brought him into prominence. The teacher H. F. Mon___?. A young man is unapproachable character. The house in good order and will last for some years when a larger house can be built for permanence. The school site is enclosed by a good fence and the house is shaded by trees. This site is the only one enclosed in the township and the credit is I believe due to the Director. There are few men willing to give unpaid labor even secure sensible improvements. This school house is historical as being the first framed structure built Jackson township. James W. Care, a leading citizen of Auburn, was the teacher here in 1858 and it is said that he spoke so forcibly against the habit of defacing ___, that after laps of many years, not a mark could be found on them.

No. 8: Alighting at the door of this old school building, the door knob is found broken and ingress made difficult. Inside the need of change became still more apparent. An old stove pipe threatened to fall while room and its furniture bespoke decay wrought by time. And neglect. In contrast with the gloomy room. In find an active earnest teacher in the person of James Fawer who has begun here his second term. He unites ability with real interest. Movement of classes and conduct at recitation are meritorious. All give close attention. A delinquent was reminded of duty in a low decided warning tone. Errors are corrected. No interruptions ever allowed. A young woman recited a perfect lesson in Geography. After all it is better to have qualified teacher in and old dilapidated house than ignorance in a furnished room. Patrons will do well to call in and visit their school for their own pleasure and the teachers encouragement.

No. 9: Our district schools have many pupils but few scholars. Timeless routine has long resurped the functions of practical instruction and patient children and bewildered at any attempt to take anew departure. Some parents are both to accept as true the evidence that school-work is progressive while others are inpatient to see their children properly taught. Any kind of teacher will suit some but only the best satisfies others. The progressive equip their children with new books, the stationary a send them to school with old ones. From the former, scholars come, from the latter idleness and insubordination too frequently. Phitelius Shurts over a call bell, had separate recesses, is careful ____. Children standing to read keep a goo position. They rest by standing and at least it is well for them to stand to recite. Short lesson are assigned. Too early lessons weaken confidence in judgment, too hard one, dishearten. A large spelling class stood in the form of an arc and the appearance was novel. More classes are drawn up in straight lines.

No. 10: The school at Auburn Junction is taught by H. G. Shull, an old, well-known and popular instructor. The wind rattles door and windows and whistled beneath the unbanked foundation and furniture was illy arranged. This is now remedied. The discipline is kind and firm. There is willing obedience. The school from the start has shown progress in good order over several classes do themselves honor by their efforts. A review of Jackson township schools, inspires well-grounded hope of a profitable winter session and a permanent advance in all that pertains to education. The spirit and vigor shown recently at the Spencerville institute from the teacher and trustee of Jackson township right men for the place.

Concord Township:

Concord township has 1 school –houses and 12 schools. Most of the schools are small, the houses poor, deficient in furniture and necessities but with good teachers in the main. In some care the site is limited to the ground occupied by the house. 4 are enclosed, none have wells, 2 have no outhouse. They are well lighted but little provision has been made for ventilation. Discipline ranges form excellent to failure. Pupils generally industrious, Classes average 18. Few registers are well kept. There are no dictionaries, few maps, about half are supplied with clocks owned by the teachers, who show evidence of qualification, 358 enrolled.

No: 1 The bell in the small cupola was being rung as we approached the small brick house have located near Orangeville. Entering find N.C. McGonigal preparing for history’s work. The house has narrow windows, rough walls no ventilation, good board, stove placed to high and a time piece marks the lapse of time. Upon board in diagram by lines is sentence 22 page 148 Hawy’s Grammar, attesting scholarship. There are but 9 pupils present, there are studious and quiet. A class called in 3rd reader has the best of instruction in reading and explanation. It is to be regretted that thoroughness should have the wider field. Few schools visited show more natural and effective work. Ability to marked, manner to kind reference on explained. Local difficulties disturb the school. Serious charges made of improper familiarities. As felling ____, it would be better to close the school and send the children to other more convenient.

No. 2: In 1874, the building was constructed and already signs of decay are too manifest. An ominous crack stretched all along the center of the ceiling, near the door, the plaster had fallen while an iron bar along the south side shows attempt to ___ the disaster resulting from poor foundation. Wall is laid off in rough blocks to imitate stone, this prevents defacement but detracts form appearance of the room. There is a good bell in the cupola , and a globe stand ready for use, Fine here Nancy Hornberger who holds a 2 year license from James Baum. An examination was in progress, with order and steadiness. Saw no program but a clock showed the time. A large class desirable in geography. Thirty are enrolled. Writing concept analysis of letters. The school shows the evil of neglecting some branches of study, scholarship is no better in the few and much is left that could be taught. Children speak ____ , stand in order, and spell well, advanced class spell score of word on slate, corrected and graded. Head makes given. Time lost in calling roll and in going to & returning from class.

No. 3: Bridge gone and have the creek and overflow to ford our horse-back, stable horse at Reason’s and reach school house just as the bell rings for school. Find 34 present, several large pupils drop in tardy. The room is quiet, classes in reading have brief good lesson. Mrs. Belle Swineford has her school under excellent control. The same signals call one class while dismissing another, time lost waiting for problems to be solved on board. Class work stops to correct school disorder. In this school, the teacher harmoniously combines discipline with instruction. There are 85 recitations and all are called on time. Children display interest and intelligence beyond their years. School hours are prolonged well after 4. A custom having origin in the best motives but opposed to the interest of children and by parents who need their children to aid in choring. Most of the school ___, 15 minutes time given.

No. 4: The Hays school house is situated upon land owned by Robert Culbertson, the site is not fenced and the forest surrounds it. The structure is old and worn. The place is notable to me from the circumstance that it is the first S. H. I entered in Indiana, the occasion being the last day of a summer term, taught by Mrs. Hattie Hanes, now after 15 years, I find a former pupil, the teacher, Millis Brown. The enrollment is 21. There are old seats and new desk, & chairs. Pupils behave well and attend to study. Mr. B, is recognizes as a leading teacher and unites tack to teaching and power control. His is of few words, illustrates to solve difficulties and discriminate between interest and effort, as opposed to apathy and carelessness. All do not fully ____ this privilege and themselves and parents are blamable. The duty of the teacher ends with his appliance of proper incentives. It is well to consider that relations and in equality of home. Spelling, oral each 5 words and graded.

No. 5: Drive down to No. 5, leave horse at Gee’s to be shod are with Saxby, visit the school. The house is on the outside old and worn. No yard and no outhouse and houses all around, this is inexcusable. Inside is well seated, a bench used for recitation seat when placed against the wall, 14 present, industrious. Song to begin led by Wm. VanZile teacher. Some pupils in class excel the teacher in reading. Arithmetic is efficiently taught. The little school in conduct leave a very pleasant impression on the visitor. There is fair opportunity to learn and there is good feeling shown by pupils toward the teacher. The school once was large and prosperous but the children have grown up and gone and there are few to replace them.

No. 6: Riding to this house New Year’s morning, I was shown by Trustee Henderson, near the residence of John Dills, the former site of a log cabin in which during the winter of 1837, George Weeks now of Newville, once surveyor, taught the first school carried on in this county. Wm. Weeks was gratified and conscientious but the boys were full of pranks and led him a lively time of it. At the school, we found 40 small children assembled in an ill-seated room. There is a good clock, a globe, a hand bell, but a poor board and loose seats place promiscuously. There is an ___ toward amount of confusion, noise and a limited amount of study. Interest centers in the recitation. The teacher is May Young, good scholarship, poor control. Supervision and instruction go hand in hand in the ideal school, very few, if any, teachers pay any attention to children conduct at recesses but may have good order during the noon day meal.

No. 7: At this house teachers meet every Tuesday evening for self help. Flint, Henderson, and myself met with them and I made brief remarks. The school has a 1 ¼ acre site, furniture is good. There is no dictionary and I find a wood-box –what should be in every school house. Frank Scholes a Normal student has studied to qualify as a teacher. He is uniformly present at all assemblages of teachers. His instruction is full with deliberate speech. There is not he best of order yet recitation show meritorious scholarship. There is no haste. Classes have ample time, a Class of 10 shows thought and practice in the application of the principles of cancellation. Fair exercise in grammar. Meet difficulty in crossing railroad bridge at St. Joseph from ice on ties and finding no school at 6, wait at depot till 10 p.m. for train and get home to find night far advanced and weather very cold.

No. 8: At Coburn’s Corners, a fine new brick house had been erected. Windows have good shutter, this and most other new houses are supplied with belfry and bell. The board is good, the seats are excellent. All is new chair desk, stove and clock. The teacher J. E. Dermott is energetic, efficient and has the tact, which enables him to act with influence upon numbers. Over 40 are present. Each so far as seen attends to his own work. Order is much above average. Government is unobtrusive but powerful. The school is in a healthy condition in all respects. Recitation and instruction are combined. Reading is made real by naturalness. Writing is taught as a general exercise with too brief time. Form and spaces of letters taught from board. Observation condemns the use of mathematical geography to beginners as a dull and difficult work. This is teachers’ third term and it is desirable that if may not be the last.

No. 9: A cold ride with trustee to small house with poor board, old time seats, stove propped upon broken brick and poor surroundings. B. Haddsell is an old teacher and classes in reading were taught by rule, inflection and articulation. Teacher read for example. School is orderly and busy, and were introduced formally to Superintendent. Pupils apply themselves closely. Confidence between then and their teacher seems complete. He instruct, they accept. Attention to lessons is unquestionably good. The number 26 is small. The severity of weather had hindered writing. The great contrast in schools and houses is caused by inconsiderate part expenditure and the ____ people who want a house at their very door. The time is approaching when Concord will have new houses until then teachers will make the best ___ of their surroundings and illustrate the truth of the saying-that costly buildings are no indix of the character of the schools taught within.

No. 10: Ella Emanual being sick her place was taken for the time by Alice Wise, who possesses knowledge without ability to control and instruction from the ruling disorder is worthless. The fewer teacher of this class the better for the interest of education. Higher Room is charge of Prof. Walter shows fined order. A fine class of 20 in Harper’s Geography gave close heed, using as called and varying in the excellence or indifferent character of recitation. As a township graded school this of Spencerville is a success. Parents living within a radius of two miles can secure their children the benefit of thorough schooling. A school like this is valuable.

No. 11: An early ride on the B & O to St. Joe, a four mile walk to the house of Wm. Henderson then with him to the school-house, small and old, battered pipe, a common desk an chair. Pricilla Coder is trying to advance her pupils. Girls are given recess first on a limited school-ground, which is destitute of out buildings. ___ at exercise are better in form then results. Whispering lessons makes more noise than do commemorate with 18 pupils. Children are healthy, cheerful and mischievous. Miss Coder however she may succeed in this school has the reputation of being successful. Concord has a good crop of teachers, some very poor houses and in instances, regard is not had for actual decency in the matter of surroundings. There are globes that are not new. There are houses that are unfit for the purpose and behind the times. Scarcely any heed is had of ventilation. The small number in some schools should act effectually to increase the size of districts. The ill teaching of some sows the bad seed for other trouble and the excellent instruction of others, raises the average and leaves the impression of ordinary school-work.

Newville Township:

No. 1: With trustee Flint visited the Newville Academy in the old room low, spacious, new seats sat 30 pupils taught by __ O. Q. Oviatt. Old is blended with new and the room stimulates retro_____. Arithmetic class fairly advanced. No supervision on play ground. From academy to grade school seems to have lowered the school. In fact, what is lost here is gained by the retention in the home schools of those whose example and standing are their life. There are few classes and ample time for recitations. Remark of pupil, "I made a mistake, "Ought to absent themselves from school?

No. 2: The Primary is taught by A. Biggs whose work has been delayed by sickness in his family. The site is spacious, some evergreens of small size are growing. A very good wood-house and outhouse at the rear of the building have been built at expense of $200, the latter one scrupulously clean and their condition is honorable to the children. The old bell in cracked tone call the children in. Charts are brought into use. There is poor ventilation, poor order and the room is shabby and aged. This old house the pioneer of academies in DeKalb and their last survivor, has been the Alma Mater to many a man and woman who busy with life duties recalls the days when, Hendries, Colgrove and H____ were the teachers and the long low cottage rooms was filled with students. But its glory is departed and the old academy but stands as a landmark of the past.

No. 3: The house held together by iron rods indicated bad foundation. Small school and small scholars, find some at ___. A. L. Strong as teacher of the class is excellent but the school is silently idle. It is a weakness not to be able to hold the reins of government. This is of the olden oral type of teaching when books were scarce and valuable. Instruction is simple and practical. The pupils are pleasantly auged? to investigate and choose language illustration of grammar. Reading charts are used. Drawing and music are taught as branches. Good spelling. A school spirit shown.

No. 4: At intervals of a mile stand 3,4 and 5. An attempt has been made at ventilation by eight circular openings in the tip of the side walls of room at regular intervals. The board is too narrow. The teacher Willard Patterson is much interested but he has only 20 present, with some classes of one only. Order’s excellent, study is exceptionally good. Lessons are prepared and exercises follow on without interruption. All are well dis___ towards the teacher. No old books in the Township. The Trustee has conducted affairs with economy, prudence and judgement. There are good houses, furniture and teacher. Recitation is heard and ___ given to prepare lessons.

No. 5: Call for Trustee and with him go to the new house. Seat, board, rostrum, bell and desk are all good. Cupboard closed by doors are a feature of this house. This is second week of term in charge of Gruten Flint whose enrollment is 40. Highest reader fifth, Arithmetic, French. Caps are not worn in the room. There is no boisterous talk. Trustee hears a recitation, teacher and pupils at seats, class are to small. Parent show interest. Discipline is 3, Classes 15. There is a clock, Lessons 3, _____ 34, 12 Study arithmetic, 6 grammar and alike number Geography.

Stafford Township:

No. 1: The teacher of this school is Kate Barber who owing to sickness in the family has no school during the week. The report of her school is wanting yet her reputation foe work is good.

No. 2: A mile north of Chapel upon a quarter acre site stands a fine brick building, in the road the school had gathered about the surveyor. The day is warm and all are out to play. F. P. Coder is well regarded by children and parents. The school numbers 39, many of them large. School opening with a song, several strong and musical voices are heard the exercise results from a weakly singing school held here. Study time is allowed. This is done generally but is demonstrative. The sound of whispering is continuous. Recitation seats are out of place at he sides of the rostrum. Third readers show a large backward class. Taught them three lines of "He never ____ again a slow work, attention to precise is difficult. Lesson ___ while turning over case of book you may take about 3 or 4 paragraphs, Look them over and learn two definition." Next class link words as "Link and." There is a new capacious wood-house and separate outhouse. Writing charts fastened not ornamentally to wall, Erasers and dictionaries are needed Parents take no interest in visiting, to them it is dull. They think it is "all right" unless someone complains, then all is wrong.

No. 3: Dinner with Trustee Greenwald, then east one mile, south one mile upon a fine hard road to No. 3, whose site is ample, all is new here. Dictionaries are needed in Stafford Tp. Forty seven pupils give good order, close study and show pleasant feeling. Wm. Bell is prompt, attend to school and class with vigor. Recitations good. All in geography in one would be very fine class. A neat popular opinion airs to make school better. Parents having well speak well of school children accept the verdict and respect the teacher. He in turn encourages, puts forth more effort. In mannerkind, teaching is through, authentic, forcible, D. G. Bell , would be successful in large school as well as in this.

No. 4: Delayed by the deep mud my long road, am late. The site is well chose. There is a wood-house. L. Work has resigned and George Pugsley is in his place. The school is well advanced. Needs order to make it successful. Pupils are ____, teacher perplexed. Government is needed to secure respect. Timidity checks control while capacity is good. The one’s fail confronted by stubborn facts. They are fine to talk about but a teacher brought tobay regards them with deserved contempt ___finally he must fall back on his own inherent resources. It is vain to parley, theaten, scold action, studied action must speak in no uncertain manner, such discipline is the key to restful teaching. Money cannot compensate for hetty? provocations of the artful. Officers should support and an effort should be made (and is made) to secure good order and solid progress.


Wilmington Township:

No. 1: The building is a frame old and dilapidated. Poor board, no desk, broken seats, others are ill arranged. Plaster is falling off. No recitation seat. John Hawkins is teacher faithful and steady, he is pains-takenly. School number but 13 present. Government is little needed. Scholars are making progress. Here is a poor house, small school and a teacher of limited scholarship. The principle of the greatest good to the largest number would close out several schools, change wages teachers and term and education would become far more effective.

No. 3: A site one mile south, then three west through Butler on roads unexcelled for depth and tenacity of blue and black mud, brings me to a large new building upon a large site, enclosed. There is a well and good pump. Enter to find a large noisy school. There were mingled the sounds of whispered study request, the hum of song and general restlessness. In all this confusion, the teacher, D. Tomlinson ___ himself with placid mind. Lessons assigned are beyond pupils ability. Under discipline the school would become one of the best in the county. Under present system progress is exceptionable, and the coming teacher has a hard task. Scholarship is trivial here compared to government, This burlesque should cease. A class in Geography recite well Pupils open books read and anticipate answers. Spelling is oral with a very fine class.

No. 4: Following a two day’s Institute of four townships at Butler, and having a good rest at the home of Wm. Harres. Inde? On the morning of Jun 12th to Mar 4. Find a half acre site well chosen and enclosed. The taste of the teacher has authorized a number of pictures cut from illustrated papers to be pasted on the walls, Henry Waters has good order. His methods are faultless, Readers are briefly questioned and geography found on outline map. Corrections are prompt and right. Better work can hardly be done. Enrollment 38, 26 present. Teacher holds the reins firmly, his scholarship is good but his lessons are too long. Director and Trustee present.

No. 5: A ride along an angular muddy road ___ to the small old house, plaster has fallen, there is a small new board over an old one. The roll calls for 43, sickness reduces this to 27, several of whom are sick. J. J. Eakright is energetic and appreciated. He opened school by singing. Order is unexceptional. Lessons show hard application. A class in reading have some who would grade high. There are a number of very backward or very dull pupils. The teacher is the scholars friend influencing their manners, improving disposition and by adapting instruction to several capacities. He aims to make study a pleasant toil. Rules related to order, obedience and accuracy. He gives a problem each evening.

No. 6: A rest at the home of the teacher where we meet Wesley Ach of No.6, young, well-meaning and anxious for improvement. In close proximity to the present somewhat old house, stand an old log house of the olden time. A new house joining 5 & 6 is wanted. Most to the schools are small. Ample time is given to reading, classes read several times round successively. They are called from 5th to primmer, for 6 to nine in each class. Novelty wearing off, the natural school, came out in whispered study as hard exterminate as the detestable Canada Thistle. In study, then a praise, in order commendation, but in order, then is room for improvement. Individual teaching is practiced. Pupils are taught self-dependence. Two children of Mr. Yarlott ____ scholarship.

No. 7: This school is being taught by Wm. Whetzel who is gaining his first experience at the head of a school numbering 50 pupils. There is an acre do school ground, enclosed with grove of young trees. The house is recently finished and measures 26 by 36 feet. School apparatus is well preserved and surrounding are favorable to learning. Among pupils are several young women. Classes are large. Pupils take the rostrum and face school to read. Writing practically a failure from parents neglect to supply books. The teacher confident of support calls for prompt obedience. Grammar is ill-taught.

No. 8: Horse fell with me but no harm done, pass night with Mr. Tomlinson and set out in the morning for No. 8, a new house. Other nearby schools detract from number and Calvin Maxwell has an even score of pupils. There he is leading steadily forward. Except among the smallest, industry is all that is desirable. Lessons are of sufficient length and fulltime is given to learn then. A class in Division of Decimals by attention and effort encourage the teacher. Other classes present the usual difficulties and test the ability of instructor. Thoughtful attention to clear, simple, forcible explanation secure a progress, regular natural and inductive to good order. Recesses are generally held separate. Meals are eaten at seats in order. Reading and spelling are ordinary. A pupil recites well in history.

No. 9: This is one of the poorest houses. It has been condemned and is falling into decay yet with human pervenity, people withdraw children from new houses and capable teacher and send them here to infur? fresh life into a dying school. There are 24 present, Judson Keyser the teacher is neat, and polite. Local wishes and personal feeling override the popular interest. The school is in no degree notable. Instruction is ordinary.

No. 10: At the center of four section and two miles west of 13 stand No. 10, on a well chosen site including an acre of ground. The house is new, capacious and comfortably furnished. Alla Shoub one of our best teachers is at work here and her efforts are unstinted to improve her charge in knowledge and behavior. Printed lesson is the rule. Instruction is reading is careful, what ____are given.

No. 11: Heavy rains make bad road worse and the side to mud sock to far from pleasant. Joined at crossroad by a man on horse back taking his child to school. The bell clear and loud calls to lesson. Within all is clean and quiet-not short-lived but permanent. The school is small but extremely well disciplined. Study is independent. Recitations follows in some what rapid recession and are evidence of intelligent study, substance of each lesson is related _____ to _____. Each read all the lesson-few paragraph. Rules and problems in Arithmetic are memorized understandingly. Ella Erehart ranks well in this her second term of teaching.

No. 12: Coleman’s corners house is old, enrollment is 33. Teacher Sarah Allan. School apparatus is not used. Pupils are not taught silent study nor good behavior. Reading is mechanical despite labor of teacher. Lessons are brief. A good recitation by a girl in History, but no system no plan to fix permanently. It is of doubtful utility to devote time to detail of battles where there is so much of civil progress attainable. Where there is no explanation, instruction, there is little to tempt investigation. The teacher is under restraints or to distracted to enlist much zeal. With mere care for order. Miss Allen would make a fair primary teacher. ______ have ____ _____, dull formed careless.

No. 13: A good site, a school of 30 children, Wm. Carmer teacher. Room clean. Pupils orderly. Reading takes much time. Pupils "sling" emphasis on last word of sentence. A practice hard to break. Definitions in grammar generally well given. The schools owes much to the visits of Director Hablewitz who is well ___ in school work. Carmer has good articulation, ____ teaches good behavior, and is in favor among the people.

Union Township:

No. 1: It is recess when a short ride brings me to a house standing near a church yard. The house is old, the foundation is crumbling away. Within are augur holes in the floor to serve a spittoons for chewers in by gone days. There are 16 pupils taught by Mrs. Lydia Rohm. They are intelligent, several being neatly dress and showing home influences. Several "Classes" in Arithmetic recite at the same time. Replease, satisfied with school.

No. 2: Within view of Waterloo 1 ½ miles from 9, we find a good well furnished house. Children are playing before the door. The teacher Henry E. Coe is busy within. School work soon begins. The desk is placed to the extreme right of the rostrum, giving a diagonal survey of the entire room. The programme had 37 exercises, and extend in time from 8:30 a.m. to 4:20 p.m. The term is over half though and attendance continues full. Lesson in writing Decimals illustrates use of "and." Small boys go out to play. County map hangs on wall and if used can be more valuable.

No. 3: A fine morning with summer sun, a flock of wild pigeons fly by, harbingers of spring or mirled by mild weather. Fine the house a frame old, low ceiling and defective ventalition. Windows shaded by curtains. The school is large, excellent order, heedful study and progressive. C. Miller has a pleasant way, distinct speech, and earnest mind. Drill in articulation much needed is omitted. Studying reading commits half–memorizing, careless definitions. There should be care with original sentences. Rules and definitions learned and understood are the basis of grammar. Here is perfect uncomtrained? order. In keeping register few are perfect, neatness is exceptional. Life an infatuation the people cling to, old books and until they do something themselves, the cause depend on salaried zeal.

No. 4: A small site upon a sandy elevation, a framed house well lighted by eight windows, air changed by lowering sashes. A good map of the hemisphere, old arithmetical charts unused. Shelves loaded with pails, clothing, stove pipe and old window sash. Seats new, board good, ceiling low. Shout and laughter are heard for away at noon but withers in charge of John R. Emley, the children attend to duty. Three in Elocution, 1 good, 2 miserable failures, a large Fifth Reader Class shows wide divergence in ability. Quey-How shall like be clarified? Parents and children approve it. Is it then advisable? Do the better help the poorer? Is latest teaching retrograding? Most are present, Arithmetic in forenoon, Redding afternoon. Is this advantageous?

No. 5: E./C. Stroh teaches at Baughman’s Island, reached by traveling a long level road through a extensive swamp. The house is new, with good furniture. The school is rudimental and need sever drill. One in Geography, no grammar. Visitors are rauties? Reading poor, too much read to little perception of meaning. Weak discipline.

No. 6: At the Pile S. H. we find a dilapidated building surrounded by mud, school ground of small area, fence, once good, now broken iron and neglect is apparent. About 30 present, full enrollment is 45. The school is up to the average in order, lessons are above it. A class in history in length of lesson and knowledge of subject surprised me, they did themselves credit. Several geography classes had good lessons, resulted? They would be a superior class. W. H. Hoagland is reputed _____teaching. Find no school time for writing and has opened an evening school free to all well-_____ persons in the district. A new house is needed.

Jan. 1880

No. 7: Again rain reduces road to endless quagmires difficult of _____. Caemer/Carmer S. H., east of Auburn, find a large site well fenced and enter by a gate. Old and new wood scattered on ground. Defective foundation endangers the safety of the house. There are 35 children present. Variously employed- part writing at board, part reading, each rising in turn without comment, rest at seats. Some intent on lessons, many on the lookout for mischief. Frequent glances are that at the visitor and each motion is observed. Henry Shaffer has scholarship and reputation. A knock is followed by the admission of two boys who take a low set by stove while one contributor to disorder in school. To their credit, some study on, remindful of interruption. A pupil here practices profanity and sets the teacher at defiance.

No. 8: A three mile ride brings me to a framed, new of seats house with poor board and small attendance. Fifteen present with 23 classes. Order is good, small children stare me almost out of countenance. Larger pupils attend to studies, Mr. St. Clair teacher. Definitions more than is customary I did not learn the result. The teacher is well qualified to conduct the studies of this school.

No. 9: On Monday Jan. 19, visited this school. There is little wanting within. Attendance is small, only 15 present and but one girl. C. S. Miller is on his fourth term here, he is thorough and the school is almost solitarily quiet. Reading is short, same verses read by sever. Windows curtained. Hooks are provided for clothing. Change of air is effected by windows and door. Board is used to illustrate.

No. 10: A pleasant evening with Ex-sheriff St. Clair. In morning ride to 10, before school. Find enclosed site. Children quiet. J. B. Baxter enrolls 34 of whom 24 were present, seven absent from family of Lutz. Order is satisfactory. The usual order of classes follow. I hear class in 5th Reader from which one pupil ____ himself contrary to the urgent solicitation of the teacher, who is capable, deserving and at the same time somewhat self-conscious.

Keyser Township:

No. 1: It is a gloomy, cloudy and rainy day with much mud. Site enclosed, house new, good class in physiology & history. Writing exercise carefully and profitably conducted. Singing is an exercise general, spirited and advantageous. Impression are in favor of teacher and pupils. A. P. Foltz has some experience. Finds difficulty in retaining school to close, caused by discipline.

No. 2: One mile north of Garrett. Rose Moody is teaching a six months term in a school of small size – number of pupils. The keep quiet – to quiet – it suggests the repercussion of fear and is unnatural. It results from unaccustomed visitation. Miss Moody is experienced and her services are in demand. __ discloses an authentic ____ by care of a number of house plank placed on a high shelf. Wood is piled in corner of room ready for use.

No. 3: Northward across the railroad and westward we find a new brick house standing upon a site not large but evidently enlarged from former proportions. Board, good; room partly occupied, 17 pupils present. Recitation extended. Teacher Joseph Kelham an imposing man, modest and on his first term. In many schools there are nominal writing classes, in this school all do write. The room is very quiet, the teacher notes defects and writes examples. The school as a small one, is good and is doing well.

No. 4: A long walk 7 miles west, 1 south traveled in mud and storm brings me to the neat brick house being No. 6, there is ample play ground, enclosed by board fence. Plenty of firewood and entering I find C. M. Merica one of our foremost teaches at work. His example of energy has not a few followers. A friendly greeting and classes are continued. The school scarcely notice our presence but reach industriously studies. The air is at good temperature, the room clean. Maps are convenient and apparatus is place where it is evidently used. The dictionary is covered by cloth and a paper covers the table. The teacher is the life of the school, rapid and thorough. Classes are uniform in book.

No. 5: A good house provided with eight large windows shaded by blue muslin curtains. The door has a pretentious appearance. The ceiling is cracked and high. 18 present. L. S. Mercia teacher. He is pains taking, laborious and combines knowledge with zeal, and this somewhat backward school has a fair opportunity, to step forward. Children heard outside a half a mile away cannot be made to speak to be heard across the school room. Teacher does too much talking a fault which has since the visit been corrected.

No. 6: a large site enclosed, a framed house, looks old, length is twice the width. There are two rows of very long seats upon which were two dozen pupils. Opposite the door is a raised platform, a fair board over which is a clock. Vertical stove, old maps adorn the walls, Muslin curtains. Adam Conrad is an experienced teacher. His practice exerts his theories. His instructions are always ______.

No. 7: The Altoona S.H, is new and roomy. Surroundings are neat. Old wood is gathered and piled. The building had little ventilation. F. J. Saxton shows energy, courtesy and discipline. Children are teachable and cry of advantage of a long term under a competent instructor. School has been in session since Sept. 18, and its condition supplies a strong argument in favor of the long fall and winter term. Reading is regarded as very important and pupils poor in an advanced class are allowed to also read in the next lower grade.

Richland Township:

No. 1: Took noon train to Waterloo walked to Sedan. At S. H. found John Steckley, Director, observing exercise. Two recite Physiology, there were numerous leading question. The switch is applied liberally and with little good effect. Order poor and whispering openly indulged. There seems little study, some recite promptly and well, singing can be used to advantage.

No. 2: Corunna, Primary is taught by Josie Rush, her fourth term. Observation and report give her reputation for successful work. About 40 pupils. There is a clock, and program. Classes more quietly, exercises brief. Manner attentive. Grading is well done. Instruction is of interest new method is successfully used. The effect of the continued instruction of the same person over changeable is seen. Education will notably improve when custom shall retain the teacher for years when as here, work is well done. Grammar room is very familiar to me, but occupants are mainly strangers. Swiftly generations ____ and displace others. Classes are large. Attention is ordinary, the manner and method of Wm. Hersh is of one experienced. Report are called by number not name.

No. 3: An old house, two rows of old seats each occupied. A class crowded by orderly on the floor, where Joseph Conrad arm in sling is teaching. His tone if pleasant and distinct. His control effective and unobtrusive. Franks & Harding are present as visitors. A better house is needed and deserved. Athletic sports outside and attentive lesson inside. Oral teaching is practiced. There is defective ventilation.

No. 4: Approach to the house is improved by a deposit of sawdust. The interior of the house presents a novel looking method of seating, two rows of seats facing inward alongside of the room. These seats are substantial and comfortable. The pupils are studious and quiet. Callie Brittan gives almost exclusive attention to the class work. The dictionary shows slight use. A clock is in use, History is read and questions are asked. I question the permanence of the knowledge. The need of a uniformity of text books to save labor is seen her.

No. 5: Approaching Green Corners school I hear singing led by teacher, Reading followed. In education, Wm. Hoffman is good, in control, wanting, with a mischievous clement in his school. At recess, disorder reigns, shout and yell sound defiantly. The teacher bears all unmoved. There is order do not seem to annoy. Commands are like bland cartridges, some sound, no execution. In 1840, the first log house stood here, six children attended, John Conely taught. Near by lives John McCrum who built first S.H. in Auburn.

No. 6: End of house to road permits no gaze? at _____ a pile of firewood by the stove is slowly drying. Repairs are needed, school small. Too small for interest. There is laxity of control. The teacher is low spoken, makes no compromise with unlearned lessons and is indifferent to class and seat disorder. The school is not satisfactory, yet a man of scholarship might teach here for years and make no mark. This is no field for ambition only for honest work an self-de______ patience. ___ does this deserve honorable mention and parents appreciation.

No. 7: It was a rainy morning and the roads were very muddy, when we visited the school at Feagler’s Corners. It was near time to open and Norman Shafer was on hand, the floor clean, a fire burning. He is strict in demands for good behavior. There was not whispering and all gave excellent heed to study. He goes home nightly to study, words on teaching.16 presents. Fertile in resources, exacting, comment___ tardiness. Requires repetition of all instruction. ____ no words. Presents a case example of persistence in correcting faults giving vocal example.

No. 8: Dinner with Mr. Lintz, a pioneer of 25 yrs. residence then on to a neat new building, enclosed by good fence and having a well on the premises. The effort proved vain and costly and within all is orderly, good board, charts, and outline maps. Minnie Wagner is teaching her fifth term and is a hard worker. School of 20. They need the restraint of controlling power, not found in teacher. Government is need here, more that learning. 11 in 5th Reader do well. School runs itself and bad will become worse. What pertains to lesson is good, spelling is lively but order is behind.

No. 9: A sadly decaying old structure, constricted in size fronted by old firewood and surrounded by mud. In some districts the house is better than the school, and the school is better than the teacher, but in "9" there is a good school and a better teacher. Both deserve a better assembly room. This is an instance where debt would be justifiable, that current and _____ outlay be not lost. There are places where schools are nominally so only and money is given away. There are others where the best of houses are none to good, and where returns is deportment. And intelligence, show a handsome investment. Writing lesson slates is preferred to the obtrusive question in _____ grammar. The school suggest a family circle, needing no word of reproof. Shull is liked, respected and capable the school is prosperous and contented.

No. 10: Ride from Auburn and reach house as school is called. The building is nearly new, there as good seats, board and wall maps, 17 boys and 18 girls present. Pupils are quiet and attentive in lessons. Wm. Quince adds energy to learning and shows aptitude in teaching. His control is unseen but felt. He is a novice in a difficult work. Fresh young teachers are far more to be chosen and encouraged. Than those who attempt to live upon a mildewed knowledge. Lower reading first called. Slates are used and are handled quietly. Time worked at board save as illustration and drill. Teacher hurried for time. Seven classes in Arithmetic show ignorance of clarifying. There is more of method taught than of principle.

No. 11: This house is a relict of days departed, without and within. Rails placed against the several old wood shutter keeping them open. Suggest support to maintain upright the _____ structure. Here are the seats existing which are talked of as being historical. Seats are set at regular intervals without regard to size or comfort of their occupants. The black board is such in color and of little account. Here are 20 person from childhood to manhood. Rev. Miller is teacher is a man whose example and precept are in favor of morality and manners. He is an excellent reader and correct speaker. Upon the desk his book "Principles and practice of teaching" indicating desire for knowledge. The school room is the best room for innovation, here assumption should fail and real merit have precedence. School is quiet, the older ones study, the younger are _____ unemployed. Classes pass with regard to quiet. Despite outside mud, the floor is scrupulously clean. Uniting intellectual with moral and religious instruction under a strictly conscientious teacher with parental accord and support cannot fail to make education serviceable.

Fairfield Township:

No. 1: Situated upon a small dry level site, stand an old house new seated. The children are quiet and studious. Their motto is "We learn by hard study" and they seem to stand by it. W. N. Shalto? had considerable experience and holds first grade proper. His work is systematic, his register is well kept. There is no noise of moving about, no interruptions. The school is plainly doing well.

No. 2: Upon a winding road, stand the house where the site is small as if land was begrudged and rails are used for fencing. Within is comfortable and well seated. Ashton Bair taught here 10 terms. Mary Curie is the present teacher, give all time to recitation. Seating bad, teacher’s back to school pursuits idleness and play. Matter passed around is a bad custom prevalent here. Living by school pleasant and of advantage. There are too many reading classes for the school size. Tardy arrivals mornings make late evenings.

No. 3: A very poor house as poorly seated with a huge cumbrous desk. There are about 35 children present, under good control. Alorin? Ash is earnest and practices the double work of supervising school and teaching. In the latter he again doubles, having a class in Arithmetic at the board while having 3rd Readers. All study calculation mental or practical. Anticipating a new house next summer. The people a disposed to a get along, with the present inconveniences. Capacity to govern and to instruct are united. No home intrigue apposes school influenced, both large and small accord willing obedience, and need instruction.

No. 4: German settlement having church, school-house, parsonage and tutors home. The school is sectarian and detract from No. 4, which had but 25 pupils, 12 only being present. They are quiet and not overly studious except the four of the large. The house is old and ___ on the highway upon which it is almost crowded by the average or hostility of L. Hartman owner of the 400 acres here. Wm. Rawsom teacher 40 years of age, is doing his work well and is conscientious in the doing-Influence is hostile to the school.

No. 5: Elements of popularity are: License all applicants, _____ everybody, commended every thing. Tell teacher that they are ill paid that Institutes are burden, that order is of little importance, that examinations are unfair and farcical. That teachers should be thankful if parents permit children to attend school. There terms be short so that everybody’s child can teach and get public money. Miss Comeskey teacher here, is a lady in manner, a graduate of Kendallville schools and has good education. The director Mr. Reynolds whose son could not get a license, is adverse to her and the hostility of a few has endangered the best interest of the school. 27 of 50 present. Quey- "Can Director be dismissed and how," when teachers are independent, cold and exacting, children mirror parent at feeling school fails and community bores the heaviest.

No. 6: Stay over with S. Reinoehl, Heavy clouds protend rain. Ride to Neidig, return to school house which is small, ill seated, ill ventilated and unfit for the purpose. School calls at ½ past 9. 20 present, 10 more dropping by 10 a.m. Clara Cooper teachers so –called class in Elocution. Quey-How shall old and forbidden books be driven from schools? This school is irregular, undisciplined and after recess idleness mingles with whispered study while the teacher spends too much time with two pupils at the board.

No. 7: A new house upon a good site. Squires is the teacher of an average school. He is reading a comic piece with a class in Elocution and allows them to select for lessons, when he should do this himself. Unlearned lessons are not dragged on but classes are summ___ dismissed. Attention is given home geography, County and Twp. maps on board. Order is good and then is here a blending of the good and bad, useful and useless.

No. 8: A long ride in the early morning on fearful road bring me to the residence of L. Buchanan, who goes with me to the school house, where W. Shatto is at work, 10 of 24 pupils present. The teacher is quiet and persevering. History is read before getting questioned upon. This teaches short lived memory. A class in Percentage are cancellation a doubtful method. Register kept by 4’s. No site for house is in good condition. The school had the appearance of doing well.

No. 9: A dry spacious excellent site, a scraper at the door. Inside is comfortable. There are curtains, globe, charts and side seats by stove. T. McCullough teacher has class reading which emphasized _____ of sentences. He asks questions indicating answer, class say yes or no, then he repeats the answer. He does most of the talking. Specimen-what commandore was it (maneuver "Com"- ( still no answer) commodore Dect__ warent "N’s" (yes) & children who come to him for pronunciation are made to spell & pronounce themselves.

No. 10: Enrollment 21, 10 only present- there abacked at visitors. Wm. Mc Osher is teacher young earnest bit embarrassed. His school is well enough what there is of it. There are too few to have much life. Lessons are ordinary, while present, it is quiet.

No. 11: Stop with A. Bair on the Story farm. Ride to county here put horse in stable of Frederick and entering have find a crowded room with Ashton Gonser as teacher, 56 enrolled and 42 present. For the number and convenience order is a little more than the average with a reasonable amount to study. Class come in order but nosily, Excellent attention is given. ___ 3rd Reader each pupil telling word as reader delays. No crayons, no slate work, little good in the lessons. The schools are doing as well as can be expected all things considered.

Smithfield Township:

No. 1: Several pupils well along in years recite competitively from Ridds Elocution. Geography class large with ordinary lessons. Spelling classes dismissed when through. The singular habit of loud foolish laughter prevails unchecked. Lessons are studied almost audibly - a blemish to the fair school. Spelling is miserably poor. Children see free and equal. Flordie Jackman is the teacher. A good box holds firewood. Neglect to give instruction in assigned lessons is common.

No. 2: Returned here after an internal of 6 weeks, J. M. Miller lost ground by indiscretion and completed his discomfiture by offensive war on those who censured him. A fine school was well-nigh ruined when he was de___ and his place taken by Jefferson Boyle in whose charge it is a success. Attendance 48. Class in 5th Reader & Com. School Arithmetic do notably well. Children seem enthusiastic to do well. Change of teacher seems to have led to good results.

No. 3: Reach the school before the time to commence. Find Laura Kennedy the teacher. She has 53 enrolled and there were many tardy. The order was fair. A class in Elocution was equal to that of drilled town pupils. There are 15 classes, some of which recite several times daily. A small class from this is school attend Institute at Waterloo.

No. 4: E. J. McOsker, teacher. Small school land noisy. Room walls ornamented: by old apparatus displayed, no special point shown by the pupils. There is a satisfied feeling among them which will close the school satisfactory to them even if not most instructive.

No. 5: Sarah Zahner teaches here, 24 enrolled, 22 average. She is capable and determined. Her small school is well taught and she deserves recognition and encouragement. A backward school is being started as a body.

No. 6: In a yellow-painted house of ample size, there are seats occupying half the area of the room, and upon them seats there are eight pupils – the smallest school in DeKalb. Dell Parnell tries to do her work with the few faithfully. She asks a long question concluding with "Is it not? Or Did he not & pupils say "Yes."

No. 7: Find O. H. Taylor in charge of a small school. His manner is ____. Methods are suggested and his ability to instruct unquestioned. Repulation is deservedly extended. Pupils all work, each is graded, it takes but a moment. Writing taught by system, amount to be written slated and ample time given. Teaches little ones on slate. Note "not how long, but how much." Teaches ____ time by dalliance with few.

No. 8: On a cross road not far from the residence of Freeman Kelly, stand a school house where years ago full fifty pupils attended, now as dozen only were found present under instruction of Frank Fiske. Geography well recited. Cube Root by analysis was learned by the class of two. Limited numbers here is a regret, it cannot be changed.

No. 9: Walked here from Auburn. Teacher is John Knott young and hopeful. School small, good behavior is not taught, pupils are too free. They gathered about desk and freely answered question directed to the teacher. A few are advanced. Whispering is moderate not controlled. There is an clement of good undeveloped. There is with to learn.

No. 10: C. S. Thompson almost a boy is the instructor here. There are curtains to window but the house is old and the board is but a relic. It is used freely. There is more freedom given children that is compatible with progress.

No. 11: G. H. Miller is teacher. He means well and has made few mistakes of ____. There are those to improve to his harm. He looks almost too much after the school so that it is manifest and grown irksome. Could he find time to commend on fit occasions with ____. It would give him prestige. Late pupils mark time of tardiness. 18 of 31 enrolled present, noisy for the few.

No. 12: Kate Kingsley teacher for third term. House new with shutters, Small play ground enclosed and planted out in young maples. Fair order and good feeling. Noisy at recess. Permits many interruptions at all times. Fingers snapped and hands clapped to call attention. Tardiness common and unnoted. Teacher attend no Institutes. Signals loud, long lesson in Arithmetic during which pupils at seats grew cold.

Uniontown School

Johnson Teacher. School sing instructed by him. Good order. All young, They are taught with skill and care. Drill is general. Teacher reads letter, pupils pronounce words. Lesson in sound is given rapidly and thoroughly. Here it is proved that good teaching can be done in as brief time as poor but how different the results! Children read fluently, naturally and with attention. Attendance good, teacher, commends effort, speaks kind and pleasant. He proves ability of men to teach well small children.

Franklin Schools

No. 1: All new and in prime order – There is only lack—the lack of pupils. This is recognized as a permanent site. It is enclosed. There are fresh new maps on the walls-useful and ornamental. Two globes and excellent board and old house used for ___ and play. Helen Bohart the teacher. Recitation seats occupied by smaller children. Reading conducted from seats. Children bidden be quiet but no work given them. Ways suit small, not large pupils. Sixth term is the place, proof of popular satisfaction.

No. 2: Christie Blaker teacher. Visit in company of Mister Oberlin. Opened with song, exercise commence with reading. Fifth Reader, excellent instruction given. Small portion should be repeatedly read. Classes seated by themselves. Seats new and face. Writing encouraged and high grades given. Quey-What object what effect? Enrolled 49, present 26. Teacher must stop to conquer. Personally has much to do with popularity. Retty? devices often accomplish more than healthy demands.

No. 3: Here is an old house, on a muddy site open on the sides to the roads. Wheat field surrounding. Wooden shutter, windows on sides and south end of room. Platform and door north end. Seats old-fashioned, recitation benches of ____ style. Mr. French teacher is not as well qualified as some, yet he is in the main a teacher. He school averages 39, 18 young men, six girls only. Time given to few branches. Notably Arithmetic-mental and practical. Geography and grammar not studied. There is some ___ of proficiency shown in mental arithmetic. In several feature this is better class of the olden-time school.

No. 4: Stormy wind and snow, rough frozen roads. House within comfortable. 18 pupils thoroughly taught by natural process. Classed prompt and attentive. Error of every emphasis corrected by pupils themselves. Reading is well taught lessons like those here are worth a volume of theories. Aid class to relate contents of pictures as if all does by them. No point omitted. Much taught in brief time. Here is towel and stand by pail and dipper. It is a sad defict—a low dangerous ____ man and otherwise good character.

No. 5: The house a frame in good repair. Site small, no platform before door. No enclosure and wood scattered over the ground. Six windows, 24 panes each. New proper curtains. Seats central, long and old-fashioned. Old maps, new chart a writing display along the walls, Good clock on a shelf. Apparatus seem to have been well preserved. Roll 16, __ 15, very creditable. Order is excellent. Good reading. Anna Dirtran teacher, unquestionably capable. Read well, teachers inflection. ____ aim here, Arithmetic blind work, 5/9 divide by ¾ = 5/9 x 5/4 = 20/27, What must we do? Change term of the divisor, cannot cancel, multiply dividend by terms of fraction. Do you understand? Yes, Well! Now take so much next lesson. Sent to board to put in practice. Taught method only. It requires patience and effort not only to do blind work and ___ ___ but to find some point to which may be attracted a commendation. From this view the teacher deserves genuine respect for courage and practical sympathy for her efforts. Teachers generally do the best they can, they need instruction.

No. 6: Of 7 lady teachers, this school had May Gunsenhouser. Experimental term in the work of education. Roll 41, She has few present at commencement. She reads scriptures. Offer brief prayer and calls classes. They move in order, some few study noisily. Teacher find difficulty in getting expressions from pupils. They remain silent or speak in low tones. Some expedient to give confidence is desirable. A ____ feeling of freedom is essential to recitation. House stands on a good enclosed site. It is new large well furnished new outline maps relieve the monotony of bare white walls.

No. 7: "Find O. H. Taylor in charge of a small active school. His manner is winning. Methods "C. C. Bowden teacher began Nov. 7, 16 present-full enrollment- pupils men and women. Opened by reading chapter of scripture. Pupils in place and called. Room scrupulously clean. House small well-seated, warmed and lighted. A noisy time piece lets the fleetness of time. M. Houk Director valuable from vicinity and interest. Regret the school is so small. The only improvement larger districts. Good what there is of it, cheerful disposition, good order, all have work, small and large.

No. 8: Square, flat roofed, brick house, roomy and lightsome. Beard teacher. Roll 44 present 28. They are not disorderly but there is communication. No attempt at display but a strong desire to help. Classes well advance. 8th term of Beard. His is a moral religious man, married and is worthy. One of the best class of teachers, too old for ______ young enough to understand and incite the buoyant ____ of youth to efforts to lodge back in memory.

No. 9: Ride from Auburn, House medium, old seats, board. Need recitation seats, 21 present. No complaint. The teacher Alvin Jennings is quiet self-conscious ____ capable and ____. Classes move on without friction. They show a good stage of advancement and interest. Reading is better taught them learned. Marked contrast with other schools.

No. 10: A bad cold present trustee going with me to this school, located near Clark’s Corners. The clatter of a bell indicates school time as in stop at O. Waterman’s. House stands on low wet site, old wood lay strewed around. Inside clean convenient, 16 present Jennie Blaker teacher, All reading good, distinct, register well kept. Teacher sensitive to repulation and anxious to excel. Pupils constantly busy. Government is in _____. Interest and progress are evident.

No. 11: An open site house of the better framed class, new seated, vertical stove in room center. Rostrum part of south end of room. Old type board. Recitation seats good benches. School quiet attentive and showing little curiosity yet consciously subject to the ____ present of a visitor. Ample time given reading. Reuben Sawville teacher a dozen praise, generally successful.

No. 12: School begun by C. Emanuel succeeded by Lottie Brundage. All present save one, among pupils M. ___baugh, Miss B. is on old teacher with a good record. Some object to time taken in morning exercises perhaps they would object to any preliminaries. The house is on township line. The attendance once large has been gradually reduced by age and by the construction of new school houses. In time the district will be attracted to others.


Schools of Troy:

No. 1: Visit this district on the afternoon of Feb. 17, Find ½ acre site title with township. House built in 1879. Bellfry-shutters green painted. Board sets, hooks for clothing. School enrolls 36, ¾ present. Larger pupils study closely. Tillie McAndy? Teacher. She chides not nor excuses, _____ freely. Calls classes by name, says "Class is excused."

No. 2: Stay with Talma Rummel, ride north and east ford Fish Creek, call for Wm. Waller mules, we got to No.2. Jacob Fetters teacher, have good outhouse, good seats and excellent board, desk, chair. School quiet. Ray’s books in general use. Despite efforts to secure a changed and the teacher accommodates himself to the facts rising such books as he has. He is kind, reproof kindles no resentment. He is advent and faithful in his work.

No. 3: Ride from Auburn, 20 miles reach house by noon, it is an old poor structure without and within. Seats are the foremost of the poor. Broken windows endanger health, there is no desk, chair or recitation seats. Despite then _____ attracts John McAndy, 10 years experience does good work, and has carried on a prosperous school. Parents and pupils are content. There are nineteen classes.

No. 4: Stop at Mertee Waller and during the night a heavy rain mars the drying road and makes travel difficult. The house is new spacious. Edwin Bailer is teaching a ____ of children faithfully on his first term. A class has a laughing girls, two sober boys and a boy crippled in limb, pale how, stand uneasily, recites as guided by the intelligence of the teacher. Extremes meet in the school room. And wisdom must be found here. Little need __ be surprised that few failures occur. It is a wonder there and not more-Human nature varies from superficial to deep. And a thoughtful teacher armed with discriminating kindness, will discover much that he may make useful.

No. 5: Trustee return home, I presume journey alone. Cross Fish Creek, stable house and walk down to this school House, which stands upon a verge of an unenclosed ___ and strongly suggests pioneer days. There is nothing outside for the eye to rest satisfied upon and little within. Seats are loose and jumbles. No desk but a good board. 10 boys, 10 girls present. Lotie Chilson teacher. Reading is well taught. Tone low, easy and natural. The order of school is unexceptionable. The teacher has had an encouraging experience. Her good fortune being to have given satisfaction and made her service desirable. Her way is mild and firm. Tickets for good classes given.

This ends a circuit of many miles, riding monthly on horse-back along most difficult roads, perilous from ice, mud and broken crossings. Extremes have been found not alone in the county but in the same township. ___ but schools are not taught altogether in the good houses. But the ___ is exemplified as is the teacher so is the schools. The teacher stand not on merit but on ____ and circumstance. Bright pupils are the foundation of the merits reputation and government is ascribed? At time to the teacher which has its origin at the homes.


Schools of Butler Township

No. 1: On the morning of Nov. 22, I arrived by train at St. Johns and after a brief talk with J. Quince went over to visit No. 1. Found a school of thirty-two in charge of J. A. Quince. The house is roomy, well ventilated, light and clean. Needs like many others-a good wood box. Wood piled on floor. Time piece needed also. Teacher service a good disposition and evidently there are friendly relations between teacher and pupils. Ink frozen. Conduct class exercise on board. A fine class (11) Arithmetic, I wrote improved order this year. Teacher have program. They consider it as important to them as the conductors on cars. Arithmetic in addition neat sums. Costly apparatus cannot make scholars and well paid educated young teachers do.

No. 2: In this old place, I find F. M. Merica at Butler Center the school maintains its former good reputation for quiet order an diligence. No rude gazing at visitors. Twenty-eight present. Small children are given ample attention. The children render "___" apart from noun, makes discord. House clean, hooks needed to hang clothing. Board too high teacher ___ always in motion. More illustration needed. Closer clarification need. Progress needs be more thorough.

No. 3: Hersh, teacher last year at Corunna. Excellent in method, well informed. 23 present. Pupils watch teacher tone and inflection. Read with care. All quiet and busy. Ability to her shown. Teacher has no book, give his time entirely to his classes. Is well qualified for primary work. Writing is omitted. Is it advisable to procure material for pupils? Recess together. Individual faults made general, teacher board (around and pays for it.) History taught by stage and prominent event. Uniform books not desired. In geography descriptive and map work taught together. A fine class. Old maps used, map drawings encouraged.

No. 4: Again we reach the Holbrook school where is a young live teacher distinctful of his power but with promise of great ability. He is pleasant, versatile and works to an object. He finds a school reserve and tries to draw them out. There are 22 present, some idle, all orderly. Some observe the teacher more than their books. The teachers talk, pupils say yes. Later supposed to recite. Is there any help for this thing? A fine primer class. Care taken to pronoun and correctly . Geographical names, Is tracing copy with ___ ___ useful? What incentive will induce desire for writing?

No. 5: Ride to school house on a sharp frosty morning and find room well warmed, and all pupils present, No. 18, several are young people. Lesson are brief. Class of 2 algebra? Arithmetic place problems on board, book in hand, bad plan. Teacher has not time for writing yet takes undue time to board work in unimportant examples. Mental arithmetic well taught.

No. 6: This school was late in securing a teacher finally W. R. Mitchell of Waterloo was installed and so far has given satisfaction. On visiting his school in February I find but ten present all boys. There is nothing to stimulate the teacher. Observation shows him patient and pains-taking. Children are bright and observant. One third of enrolled are present. Compulsory attendance would apply here to advantage.

Schools of Jackson Township:

No. 1: Calvin H. Brown, Grade 10 Feb’y,7-thirty-three present. The teacher continued with the best results. The house had curtains, hooks, maps by pupils. Good interest has origin in interest taken by parents. This does the district credit. The same degree of interest throughout the county would revolutionize our schools. Grades would be expelled; love teachers would be upheld. Good influences of home would be brought to the school; dormant energies would be awakened. The teacher, cheered. There is quiet study and interested recitation. Chart lesson is teaching sounds, words and rapid conceit reading. Unusual meaning is given to lesson on corrections of errors in grammar.

No. 2: J. W. McCrory, Grade 10. Feb. 10, Nineteen present. No rudeness in school room. Larger ones sing. At call quietly and quickly seats are taken and study commences. Most are busy, all are quiet. Good order is notable point. McCrory is jovial, pleasant, firm and pains-taking. To him it is "line upon line" often repeated. Printing is nicely done. Observation teaches the success of long time and efficient teachers. Defining follows reading. Quey-What should be taught to 4th Reader Grades? Larger ones provided with scrap books. Children read spelling lesson, naming silent letters.

No. 3: Henry C. Shull, Grade 10, Feb. 10. High water prevented any from west side from attending and but 14 of 42 present. There reflect credit upon Mr. Shull and themselves. Cordial disposition seen. The teacher is no time ____ but has genuine interest in the school. To it he give time and thought. Of it, he is proud, their success is his pleasure. He teaches by short steps. Illustrates freely.

No. 4: Maggie Roller, Grade 4, Feb. 9. In the midst of a continuous heavy rain, I traveled three miles from 9 to 4. Through slush, water and on ice over ditches. Fields and through woods, I located and reached the house, thoroughly drenched. My entry was for a time unnoticed by the teacher. Loud whispers are heard all about the room. Of 17, about half at work. Child recites "Twinkle Twinkle little Star," to pronounce, chief work, high tones. History has for its only life the asking of questions. There was a suggestion of discouragement, apathy and lethargy. Teacher complained of profanity. Patrons oppose her, say she talked to much at the start and lost control. Their help could quickly put a new face upon the school but it won’t.

No. 5: Rose Moody, Grade 9. Feb. 8. A thaw, road a continuous ice sheet, a drizzling rain. Leave horse with Coy walk to 5. At school 26 present. Ordinarily quiet, reasonably employed. Children bright. When is a word spelled? Time lost writing the solving of problems at board. Dictionary brought into use. Chart properly used. Miss Moody is faithful, efficient teacher. She has not been paid in money or public appreciation as she deserves. The flower of many such a life has been sacrificed to the labor of the school-room. Her smile and encouraging words have been the stimulus to effort, whose results the pupils have ___ altogether to themselves. The time should come when the public should requite such service more worthily.

No. 6: N. Shafer, Grade 8, Feb.7. Signals to loud snapping fingers, bad practice. To what extent should teacher carry with them school anxieties? The outside report places order lower than last year. But credits Shafer with lucid explanations and certain progress.

No. 7: Samuel High Grade 10, Feb. 3. Nearly 40 present. The appearance in position department and study’s is like a Model School. High has the requisites of success in medium tone, close attention to work. Should teachers permit interruptions while having class. Program formed is the finest in the county. Some despicable thief stole the clock. How should school be closed? Most advantages in the methods?

No. 8: Eugene Carper, Grade 6, Feb. 8. And old house made new brick lived. New furniture. Creditable order among the 25 pupils. Signals are loud, fine cannon to open battle, tap of pencil to call class. Let teachers make sure of pronunciation. Rhet’ic orally, gives good attention to writing, distributes copies. The exercise had full time. All write.

No. 9: Olive Nelson, Grade 10, Feb. 9. An old house repaired. The trustee deserves credit for the thorough and economical way in which he has fitted up old house. The rule had been to sell old house at $15 to 25, then build at the cost of $800. And put people in debt. Miss Nelson is a faithful teacher. Her mind is upon her work. There are 28 present. There show a teachable disposition.

No. 10: John H. Merica Grade 9, Feb. 11. A slight frost has hardened the sand of the railroad track making the walk early. The first bell had rung as I entered to find Mr. Merica ready for his days work. The room was clean and warm. The pupils are rough at recess. Study together and show a wide awake cordial feeling. There is diligence and some whispering. Good singing opened school. Dances have a bad effect. Reading classes are taught inflection and articulation. 29 present. Teacher is pleasant, careful and keeps classes on time. Good chart instruction, exercise is Physiology and Arithmetic was thoughtfully and thoroughly discussed.


Concord Township:

No. 1: Jan. 25, 1881- Edith Husselman being sick her place has been taken for a week by Mary Greenwaldt, a person unlicensed. The school enrolls nine pupils, who are well behaved. Class read entire piece. Each his verse in turn and excused. Stove placed high. Floor cold and littered with wood dirt. Tones of children small and high. Boys cypher as of old. Smaller look on as each recites.

No. 2: Feb. 1. Belle Swineford, Grade 10. Enrolled 22. Visit this school during the most serves storm of the winter. Snow deep and drifting. But 16 present. There without exception apply themselves closely to work. Room quiet. Teacher kind alert, careful and merits her good reputation. Her ways are mild, ___ and pleasant. The word _____ is used for let.

No. 3: Feb. 1. Nannie Hornberger, Grade 10. Boys and girls rush for and climb upon sleighs. This is the last week of term with 25 present. Close attention to study in class, to recitation. Honors themselves & teacher. Quey – What is the secret of this order, studious ways and prompt work? A rule to secure it would sell for more that gold. It can be felt, appreciated but whence is it. There is a lack of synthetic exercises in grammar. Reading well taught. Is it well to call number of paragraphs? Class calls are singular but successful. Writing general but poor copies.

No. 4: Feb. 2. Willis B. Brown, Grade 10. Sixteen present. Systematic work is done by this well known teacher. Observation shows better order progress and attention where a well like teacher continues term after term in the same school. Brown sings well, good pupils voices. First singing then writing sliding copies. Each must write a page, if not a time at least before the next lesson. All keep together. One reads primer another provision c_____. Reading stimulates thought. Small child show marvelous progress. Examinations kept in grade book. O_____ pupils expelled. Synthesis well taught. Teacher economizes time and is constantly at work. Text books should be supplies.

No. 5: Wm. Van Zile Grade 6, Feb. 2. Site and house reflect upon the enterprise of the District. About 30 present. Order reasonably good, Take place in class orderly. Recess is taken temporary surpention of teachers authority. Kindly ways smooth over the lack of knowledge. There is no disposition to evade or ‘dress up’ and as the school is it appears. Continued instruction by the same teacher is generally advisable, Means of interesting way with the teacher. Van Zile had spelling – evening school his pupils win.

No. 6: N. Hornberger, Feb 22. A. L. Strong failed here. The rod also failed. Now there is admirable order. Attention much occupied in observing class work. Instruction to little children in small word. Is naturally and early given. Questions on lesson secures quick, free answers. Rest advised. Also, cares of school government. It is well to encourage children at least to look over and follow the spelling of the first class.

No. 7: Cheerman?, Grade 6. The school is orderly pupils go out at will without an abuse of the privilege. Reading is without comment. About 25 present. The teacher has the support ______. Personally, he is courteous, quiet and well-informed, practically he is not vigorous, there is little instruction out of the book.

No. 8: J. Dermott Grade 10. Jan 25. Enrolled 34, present 32. Teacher at play with pupils. The same originator pains taken with small as larger. Instruction is a part of the recitation. Interest gather about old known lessons. Crayon outlines of group of state placed in colors upon the board. Interruption allowed to locate places. Should visitor sit with pupils? 13 smaller write on board. Larger ones pay no heed to writing. Parents generally pleased at child’s progress.

No. 9: Ellen Joslyn, Grade 10. Jan 26. Extremely windy stormy weather. 26 present. Benches about stove filled with pupils silently studying. Boys hold books, expecting to be called. Respectful attention, polite replies. There is ample of wood and good fire. The teacher has much of future promise of success.

No. 10: Feb. 4. Grammar. Frank Scholes, Grade 10. Order no where, pupils have made progress in knowledge and retrograded in deportment. Under tones, whispers, confusion reflect not upon pupils but upon the teacher. Censure of pupils is unjust since government influenced by interest is not self origination. Youth recognizes and obeys the marter? Schools has skill and knowledge but no control, in the respect the school is a failure. Primary, Josie Rush, Grade 10. There are teachers whose presence enforces silence, who bring order from class, who discipline schools. There real teachers are not properly recognized. Their grade differ little from that of other, their pay is no greater. The room has excellent teaching. All are quiet thoughtful and working. Reading good, pupils bright and critical. Mental taught by question, solution, conclusion to 1st ,2nd & third pupil.

NO. 11: Alice Wise, Grade 6. Feb. 3rd. Present 18. Fair study. Too free in making known requests. Whispering loud. Feeling evidently friendly. House very bad, unfit for the purpose. Teacher quiet, low spoken, plain patient. But there is no snap, no vigor but rather a placid calm. Time is lost while board work is doing. Miss W. has knowledge but not vigor.

Schools of Newville:

No. 1: Miss Nelson, Grade 10, Jan 20. Eighteen enrolled, 17 present. House new outside old within. Pupils prompt to obey, lively and interested. Life and thoughtfulness make teaching really appear. Delightful task last word unduly emphatic. Child says "I mind reading that." Children prize the favorable opinion of the teacher who is calculated to succeed. She uses old charts, some do not use new ones, all speak in distinct tones.

No. 2: Grammar, Harrod Grade 7, Jan. 21. Qualified teacher and intelligent pupils, full school. Medium knowledge shown in classes. Pupils are numbers and at roll call to grade each replies 10? ___work "learn all you can reading but and examination. Few of 4th reader kept the place. Primary, Jan 20, Mary Young Grade 2. The conduct of classes is almost a burlesque on teaching. A constant rattle, noise and confusion. Class wait the replies in ___ questions. Class stand in long swaying lines. Teacher experienced too much so, to be aided by criticism. It is time they retired from the work. Calls of "teacher" incessant. Recess and noon great dis_____. On occasion of teachers’ meeting, many pupils absent, those present did quite well.

No. 3: D. G. Bell, Grade 10, Jan. 27. Present 21. Lively forward and prompt. Several had good tone, and appreciate what is read. Chart lesson will taught. Bell is plain, unassuming. Kindly interesting, excellent in method and withal an excellent teacher, poorly paid and deserving of appreciation.

No. 4: Benjamin Nelson, Grade 7, Jan 27. Enrolled 19, 14 present. House and surroundings excellent. Pupils well-behaved. No pressing excerises. 5th Reader first called and all in school but one is in the class. Definitions are thoroughly committed. Close clarification helps in time, in unity of purpose. Teacher earnest, informed, and makes good points. His question suggest language lessons.

No. 5: Jan. 26, Emma Young, Grade 10. House, site, furniture good. 40 pupils present. A number of whom are young people. Classes retire noisily. Outside report confirmed. Arithmetic takes time, working examples. It is well to excuse small children when they had spelled lessons? We learn that repulation depends upon flattery, person and biased report.

Schools of Stafford

No. 1: May Coder, Grade 10. The sixth week (Jan 3d) find 26 present. Not quiet but mainly studious. Deficiencies not concealed. Teacher in accord with pupils. There is suspicion that pupils are familiar. Mrs. Coder is a model in manner, capable, unassuming a pleasant. As long as she can be secured to do work in schools, it is to nor interest of all concerned to be encourage her to remain at No. 1.

No. 2: Jan. 19, Jefferson Boyle Grade of tack and skill 10, Present 25 admirable order. Outside report makes him popular, consequently successful. Teaches to avoid error should study the lesson to be recited. Grammar a cursory review not a test of knowledge, nor instruction. Writing is general exercise. Teacher unusually well posted. Requests pupils before recess to gather up stray papers about the seat.

No. 3: Alice Barber taught part of a term, taken sick, then A. Walsworth succeeded her and so far as heard from, does well.

No. 4: Jan 21. Irene Campbell, Grade 10. 14 of 29 present. Several families care to send. Teacher is denounced as without control, and the school as a failure. Parents make or mar the school. Poor teacher are held in high regard, good teachers, low. When a teacher loses patrons, support, it is best that he resign.

School of Wilmington:

No. 1: Nov. 30. Alvan Jennings Grade 6. House metaphorically "On its last leg." The school is "Pining away" Only 8 present. One female, a young woman. Little discipline, long recitations. Small schools like this give us a _____ for "Time Killing." The condition is made worn by parents sending to other school. One cannot but sympathize with the teacher bound to work here.

No. 3: Thomas Baxter Grade 10. 40 pupils. Improved since last year. Baxter an admirable instructor, in manner alive, at work, vigorous, subjects, well prepared. A fine class in grammar. Lesson in History to lengthy. Spelling oral, class of 2. The ill habit of whispered study greatly detract for the credit of school.

No. 4: Jacob Fetters, Grade 8. 3 present. Grammar shown by three. Teacher free, active and independent, anxious to complete work. Words pronounced with careful accent. Fetters should succeed, he has needful facilities, he is young and knows the value of education.

No. 5: Jop. Eakright, Grade 10. He has a joined distinct 5 and 6. The house is 24 by 40 feet. There are 70 enrolled and 56 present. The operation of the school is strong argument for consolidation. Former inattention, small classes, double expense contracts with great interest, large classes, well taught at same cost. A lesson in reading had been studied with a serenity which ____ influence.

No. 7: Mary Brundage, Grade 10, Present 40. Psalm read, beautiful eloquent prayer offered with bowed heads. Roll call, box filled, walls decorated by pictures. School obedient of duties. Large pupils attend as ability is seen to properly interest them. It is a mirtahe? to lore a young man or young woman from school. Signals to loud, teaching is vigorous. Best known is best taught.

No. 8: Calvin Maxwell, Grade 8. Nov. 30. It is the second day of school and all are not yet in. Those present are good material for scholars. There are two general grades. Maxwell is courteous and not showy. Pupils take hold reasonably well, There is whispered study. Room cold, some adornment in shape of another or pictures would help looks.

No. 10: Dec. 1. George Pugsley, Grade 7. Surroundings and interior are comfortable. There is some uneasiness at low temperature. Pugsley has some good qualifications but should review studies. "That right" is a frequent repose for an answers hardly deserving notice. Arithmetic is well taught, Grammar poorly, Government is not of the best and there is no order of approaching a classes.

No. 11: Nov. 29, Sarah Erehart, Grade 10. She has a good house, and she is the right person to teach here. She did well last year and she does equally well this. Large classes, read long an copying their example read well. There is a clock, a motto and there are charts. There is unexceptionable good order. Recesses held at separate. Writing time occupied by copying paragraph of reader.

No. 12: Nov. 29. William Whetzel 9. This was his first day at Coleman’s Corners. He took enrollment and called out classed. The house is a bone of contention and sadly need repairs. Standing on the line, it should long since have been discontinued. Whetzel has shown reasonable ability to teach.

No. 13: Mary Gunsenhouser has a small school with primary work. Passage over floor is rapid but noisy. Teaches "__" and "__". How deal with text lessons? How write decimal? There is noisy study, growth of school tone, play in school room. Poor teachers should be changed out, good ones, keep in same place.

School of Union :

No. 1: Charles Baxter, Grade 5. Dec. 9. Set our from Auburn on an extremely cold morning upon a very rough road. At Husselman school house, have fell and injured leg delaying travel but finally reached the school house. The room was warm, there was one pupil and teacher. Enrollment, 12, Class of 1. It is lonely work in solitude. Tones of children high and jerky from first to fifth reader.

No. 2: Nov. 16. Kirk Miller, Grade 10. School orderly and advanced. The house has curtained windows, single seats, good board, framed mottoes, good stove. Primer printed on board. "Teaching all at once." Teacher gathers in knowledge of history for class. It is rapidly become a question whether teachers shall be paid and retained or the business given over to incompetents.

No. 3: Nov. 15. J. St. Clair, Grade 9, School studious, reading classes well conducted. Fine class in geography. Should take care in assigning lessons. Conceit work screens ignorance. Why are the arithmetic classes placed in the afternoon? Much seen to commend.

No. 4: Nov. 15, Perry Ensley is his own successor. 28 present the classed pass rapid but loud. A girl of 12 excels in reading. Teacher explains imagery of lesson, rapid speech. Recitation is the harvest of study as it is the seedtime. Is readers basic for grade? Grammar studied reluctantly & rules few and examples many. Thoroughness not rapidity.

No. 5: Nov. 19. Charles Dugan, Grade 7. Enrolled 38, 30 present. Children teachable, attentive and pleasant. How deal with deaf child? New teachers gain by charge of location till place found to liking. Factional feeling may be used to foster school interest. The presence of parents is a present help. Words of commendation are the teachers gain. Frequent recitation is questionable.

No. 6: Nov. 20. Laura Keeran. Grade 10. Teaching and gov’t are creditable and the school does quite well. There is a great good change in this school. Miss Keeran is the right person for this place and does fine service. The room is warmed, ventilated, clean. Children are all busy working on slate. Order good. Class movement promptly heeder. System suits all, Dismission for recess in order a sit proper. Parents are interested and pleased. The conduct of this school at present is unexceptionable.

No. 7: Nov. 18. Wm. Hoagland, Grade 4, Small children, active apt. attentive. History received by three boys who are very well ported. Books supplied. Should bears play in house, nor hats worn. Advancement in study exceptionally good. Commendation is the best help this school can receive. Hoagland’s reported severe and ____ of speech.

No. 8: Nov. 17. A. Stroh, Grade 4. Found him with school in hot pursuit of a rabbit. School quiet about twenty present. The house is old and shabby. The board is a relic of the past. An idea of geology is suggested by a gathering of specimens ______ on shelf. Teacher is constrained, instruction is dry. Reading simply a reading. This gives practice. Find a few trying to study History and Physiology in many of the schools as here.

No. 9: Nov. 16. William Miller Grade 8. Good order. Recitation average, 10 minutes. No comment on reading. Quotation in history tell to much. Avoid questions whose only answer can be "Yes". Simplest instruction in most difficult form inexperience. Kindly manner influences attendance of pupils . Hard to grade backward. Ill grade is worse than no grade. All of a grade should be called to same class.

No. 10: Nov. 17. A. K. Gribb?, Grade 10. Has a nice program. 3 present. Clany of bell calls. Few Scripture verses without comment. Alphabet, read a letter to recalled, to print. Hardest placed on board. All see, try and learn. Tone manner look earnest and encouraging. Good printing by members of 3rd Reader. There is study moving _____, 26 classes in all. This is the workhouse as well as the parlor. Lesson in use of capitals, Failure in grammar is too much ha___. Ever varied repetition is the essential to learning. Writing lesson occupies 25 minutes. All dismissed in order. Is it ____ to escape hearing individuals? How can all be got to work? The schools of Union are successful. The teachers are in the main qualified. They are faithful at work. Meetings are advisable to compare methods and attempt them.

Schools of Richland :

No. 1: Sedan, Orin Bair young not well informed retired to give place to Franks who was successful. 46 enrolled and 33 present. Bair taught well under the circumstance. This and many other houses need something to relieve that blank monotony of the walls. A girl whispers in reading. Room to cold. 35 classes show poor arrangement. There is a lack of "push" more apparent with so many recitation.

No. 2: Corunna. Zeis Principal, Morning exercises by schools joined singing, scriptural reading and experience prayer. Order incomparable. The teacher is energetic, his tone of voice clear. Fifth reader, read much, drill little. Explanation of word is good, encouraging free use of dictionary. Reading to prompt with such a class, is entering into the spirit of the piece with a full understanding of the meaning. Teachers voice rises too loud. Nellie Imus?. Primary has children under good discipline. A brief exercise in writing on slates shows fair idea of form approaching legibility. Mental question, repeated and solved by memory. The good order of the little ones proves the lack of ability or energy after shown on quieting the few in schools. Quey - Are many classes dept quit than few? The class laugh des____ at erroneous answers. The children are not ____ but brought forward.

No. 3: Joseph Conrad, Grade 10. Dec 7. Approach at noon to find an unusual number of boys and young men at play before the school house. Stable my horse and enter the school room which is generally contracted. There are new seats. Enrolled 44, present 32. Crowded and orderly. There is good government under a servere circumstances. Advanced ideas and easily conveyed. Questions of tarte/torte are decided. There is latitude within a defined limit circumscribed by strong authority. Outside opposition ___ at conduct and maligns the teacher but the fault is seen to exist wholly with the one or two parents.

No. 4: Joseph Ober, Grade 8. 26 present. Spelling first called, class exercised in pronunciation, specially with long "u" dissolute "ex. ___ 1 2 3 etc. double, pair. Are you ready aye proceed, Reading taught very well, exclusive time to work in hand. Study good but noisy. Teacher is too prolix and lacks drive. No recess given, pupils go at will.

No. 5: Hoffman, Grade 2. The teacher of last winter, retained. Outside sport is favorable to education and adverse to good order. 25 children, mainly small. Study is general with lip accompaniment in most cases. Instruction is earnest and will timed. Objectionable portion of class leaning against seat. Writing omitted. Quey – How shall writing be taught when teacher has no heart in it? He teaches best what he knows and likes best. Order far from being good. Rude conduct in and out of school. Grammar is a farce. Teacher does all the work. Analysis is it "odds and ends". Omitting Clarks system there is little in it.

No. 6: Thomas, Grade 4, Dec. 13. Splendid school! 15 present. A tired teacher an a weak school. People pleased. "tickled" but not profited.

No. 7: Foltz, Grade 7. Dec 13. A sore present. Trouble in carrying in wood. Instruction medium. Necessity of review seen. The school neglected. Little allowed t teach illegally. School taught our by Perry Ensley.

No. 8: Viola Shull, Grade 10. Continued teacher. Sever weather and 17 of 25 present. Reading exceedingly well taught. 112 2/20 – 37 ¾ = Lessons as a rule good. Much practice, little theory in a writing exercise. Word of song written on board. 8th Reader spell lesson written on board.

No. 9: Minnie Scott (nee Wagner) Grade 9. A miserable old open ____ house tenanted by 30 children. Read scripture, sang, then smallest recite. Pupils take up lesson unrequested and _____. Strong reason exit from a new house, Runs of chair, elocution of word method. School competes ______ for order and industry. Recess separate, simultaneous recess is a school in folly and teacher’s criminal indolence.

No. 10: C.C. Cirrel?, Grade 10. 30 present. 16 classes, timed exercises. Parent object to orderly movement as tending to "Centralization" _____ _____ place tenaciously and inflicts upon bigotry and _____ of home. Cirrel is earnest and competent and the order and study are fair.

No. 11: Franks undertook to teach here and failed from sickness, his place was taken Dec. 13, by Cedelia? Shafer who had 20 present. Order good. Young men set an admirable example of good behavior. The question is not capacity of the teacher but health to do her work. She has a fine record for interest in schools and

teachers meeting. Quarrel ___ here between young men. A fight settled by fines at Court. Richland has a good trustee, a majority of good teachers but too many hours. Thinning corn makes the crop larger and better.

Schools of Fairfield:

No. 1: Wm. H. Shatto, Grade 10. Enrolled 42. Five terms in this school. No opening exercises. Difficulty found in securing prompt attendance. Charts well used. All busy without word or look from teacher. It is pleasant and creditable to teacher. Blame has not soured nor flattery spoiled. The children willingly work. During entire day, no word or signs of disorder.

No. 2: Ashton Bair, Grade 8. Enrolled 33, and mostly present. Some attend well to class work; others allow gaze to wonder aimlessly. Somewhat noisily study and communication are held. Teachers is kind, Children need frequent reminder and occasional discipline.

No. 3: Alvan Ash, Grade 10, Dec 16. 32 present is an old house perched close upon the road as if land was to valuable and education too insignificant to grant a yard to children half as large as any farmer give to his ____ to range in. The school is in good shape, quiet and steady. The teacher does not illustrate the reading it is next & C., this is a neglected filed. The voice of the teacher illustrating and questioning infures life.

No. 4: George Urey, Grade 10. 19 enrolled and 18 present. Unusual order and diligence. All classes take pains to learn. Urey works with all his might and ought to win encomiums. His calls are lively and with spirit answers. Air and warmth noted. There is the life of a large school in this small one and here is illustrated . The lower made higher. Urey is ambitious to succeed and does so.

No. 5: Leslie Ash, Grade 10. House and yard model in form. Large enrollment. 38 present. Readers 5 to 1 voices then piping, pitched high and lacking expression. Teacher works heartily.

No. 6: J. P. Kandle, Grade 10, Dec. 24. 31 of 38 present. Tardy in arrival. Order far in advance of previous year, and very good, whispering is reduced to very few and covert occasions. Classes move orderly, and show progress in advanced work. The teacher is a favorite and had pupils and parents with him, whenever this is the case success is assured.

No. 7: A. McInyre, Grade 9. He had greatly improved and looks sharp to the order of pupils, and endeavors to make clear the sense of words in reading. He has a pride in work. New houses, needed and supplies apparatus and live ____ are doing good work here and the outlay is profitable.

No. 8: Frank McCullough, Grade 10. 17 present. Has time for all lessons and takes time. Spelling is plan and correct. The order is unexceptable. So well qualified a teacher should have a wider field. Do you teach principles and then illustrate them or illustrate and apply names to principles? Ought ____ marks to be given? Should words be syllabled in spelling? This house needs a site, it has none. The play ground is the road, the outhouse is across the road open to the view.

No. 9: Ashton Gonser, Grade 7. The house crowns the crest of a hill near by an old mill dam, it is an old structure and has done duty many a day. A score of children attend. Gonser is quiet in manner; says little; he had a curt and emotionless way of hearing recitations. Unless students talk little is said. Classes come and go, one makes way for another, pairing is from readers-and old, good way. Is it advisable for class to prepare work? Spelling read from slate. Class called one at a time.

No. 10: W.H. Shatto, Grade 9. 18 present. Chart exercise animated. For use of noun refers to dictionary. Beves for bevis. This teacher should attend to studies at home if possible but we do not know all the tasks our teachers have. The thoughts of home cannot always be forgotten to give place for zeal in the school room. Corrects plainly. Quiet is at times broken only by the tick of the clock, which is startlingly distinct. The school shows improvement.

No. 11: Wyrick, Grade 10. At noon found school at play and the teacher writing for reading a stanza of the Ice King. Enrolled 55, 49 present. Teacher wide awake, school attention. Book in hand for a doctor would be ludicrous, why not for a teacher? Lawyer studies and goes on. Teacher studies and quits. Readiness to criticize seems general. Parents reluctantly supply reader books. Teacher bought paper for writing with good effect. Pictures placed on wall, children study and write. Such a lesson cannot fail to interest. The Fairfield Institute was attended by all the teachers, exercise interesting. Trustee in accord with them and di____ to encourage practically. The future of the schools of the township is promising. The want of most schools is qualified teachers, Reinoehl has them.

Smithfield Township:

No. 1: Mary Jackman, Grade 10. 38 enrolled, 31 present. A large class of young people at recitation in Partial Payments give fair part of their noon hour to lesson. Explanation clear an conclusive. Miss J- had tack, control and education. She stands well to the front in school work. The room suggest somewhat of a domestic look having pictures, mottoes, wood box, b___ and stand and also, a spimhler?. This school is very prosperous.

No. 2: Frank Fisk, Grade 9. Began with 35, drop in till 43 are present, a bad practice. Teacher does not believe in a time piece. Instruction is good, Many children idle time. Fisk teaches the Science but not the Art of grammar. Recess without signals and simultaneous. Popular opinion decides character of the school and without this no effect would avail; with it even an imbecile and ignoramus with flatter would win.

No. 3: Henry J. Shafer, Grade 10. The school is in numbers, less, 25 present. Class in Elocution read too much and need drill; especially upon difficult pieces. "Eloquence of the Pupil", one lesson. Order good. All are busy. Definitions exercise the memory. Emulation is defined as rivalry what is rivalry, no response. The old dictionary is worthless, new ones should be purchased. Charts and other appliances are much needed.

No. 4: Frances Buss, Grade 6. A very cold day was Dec. 24. Old chart hanging upon the walls suggest former use as old admirable and mind the days of chivalry. 16 present, smaller ones noisy and not reproved, larger ones are studious. Barns’ banquet-poorly read. Several read same paragraph, no questions, explanation or illustrations. Pairing better but the teacher is not in her work.

No. 5: Maud Shoemaker, Grade 9. Teacher highly esteemed. Reputed to attend to the language of pupils, correcting and reproving profanity and inducing purity of speech. Teachers map drawing upon board, evidences Scholarship and impress all with sense of obligation to order and self-improvement. Unlike many, Miss M – teaches from desire to do good and to make a reputation, money is to her a secondary consideration.

No. 6: Dec. 27, Sarah Zahnor. Grade 10. Eight weeks taught and has 22 enrolled, average of month 19. Small pupils, ordinarily still. Whispering unchecked. Reading classes taught well. Tardiness of the older pupils hinders progress. Teacher’s record creditable.

No. 7: Oscar Taylor, Grade 10. Teaching near his home in the school of last winter. First grade in scholarship, he also, shows teaching ability in school work if a high order. Such as he should be continued in teaching, by liberality of wages. 18 present. A brief visit leaves a favorable impression.

No. 8: Kate Kinsley, Grade 7. The teacher has been almost constantly kept at work during the year. Enrollment here is but 13. Present at visit 10. All are quiet and busy. They have time and are learning. They are teachable.

No. 9: Agnes Baxter, Grade 10. Age, bearing and skill are all favorable and she should be warmly supported where ever she may choose to locate. She is skilled

in writing and could she improve with desire and instruct as she herself can write, her work would be invaluable. As it is the school is doing well. Too semi-imbeciles are being taught but it is questionable whether there children should not be at once removed to a better opportunity.

No. 10: Albert Beard, Grade 8. Enrolled 23, present 14. The weather extremely rigorous. The house is ill fitter for school. A brick near by to the north east, like a vampire has drawn it life and the house and enrollment are thereby _____. The children do not seem to know of the injustice. They use time. Beard teaches better that he answers question.

No. 11: Jnett? Conrad, Grade 10. Thirty one enrolled, 15 present. That any are present is a credit to them with the mercury 14 below zero. Miss C. was present had a good fire. She is very energetic, she is capable and well likes securing good work.

No. 12: Laura Kennedy, Grade 10. Temperature too high. Ready obedience given, good study marred by whispering. Germans are being Americanized, who know no English. A boy in rear of room complained of cold. Stove drafts opened and a heat to scorch a salamander radiated and like veterans the boys near by stood up to bear it unflinchingly. No apparatus of any kind here. All parties oppose changes.

Smithfield has too many schools in her southern borders. They paralyze the good that would arise from sizable schools, qualified teachers inspired with good wages. In some regards the rule of a few would be beneficent but a Gladstone has many enemies, however just and wire the measures he introduces. If politics could be removed from election of ____, if trustees would take and exercise the power law gives the, the trimming of there superfluous houses would revolutionize the progress and results of a free education now often more costly that useful.

Schools of Franklin Twp. Jan. 6, 1881

No. 1: W. H Bell, Grade 2. This young man is martyred by the situation. At 9 a.m. 3 present of 23 enrolled, others straggle in at intervals. The school is farcical failure. House and fixtures good, the difficulty is mainly in him whom I have given authority to stand there. The people think this sort of school is better than none. I do not. Evidence of lack of interest is the absence of Bell from the Institute. He has no force, program, nor system. He is tame and skill less.

No. 2: Jan. 6, Emma Yarlott. Grade 9. What a contrast this to the other school. A full school fully employed, all interested and pleased. Ten pupils in 5th Reader are poor readers and good observers. They are commendable and are praised. There should be a time out of class to answer school questions. Posture standing good,

but seat themselves heavily. 3d Reader teaches acquaintance of words. Lessons of reasonable length. A class in geography render a faultless lesson. Order good it is partly owing to whisper rule, five notices by teacher and name on board.

No. 3: Lydia North, Grade 8. Jan. 14, and the mercury 2 below O. the door has a broken lock and is kept closed by a stick against it. Panes of glass are broken. The frames of shattered shutters slam to and fro, creaking dismally. Now the room is alight, now deeply shaded. It tells of poverty and neglect. Wood dirt litters on floor. The teacher is mistress and there is order, study and instruction. She deserves credit for work done and doing. Classes have time and opportunity. It is attempted to draw attention to geography and grammar.

No. 4: Jan. 7, Ida Wyckoff. Grade 4. 28 enrolled, 21 present. She is pleasant and pains-taking, there is diligence without quiet owing to lip movement. Geography read and questioned upon. Young children write lessons. There is here neither future failure, not actual success.

No. 5: Jan. 13, Charles Jackman, Grade 6. I confess to a feeling of disappointment on entering the room. It is a skeleton school, a _____ of past fullness. Jackman showed ability and interest. 11 children compose the school. All there are doing their duty. The teacher reads well and to this devotes much time. Children are noisy and rude to one another at recess and play in the room.

No. 6: Jan.7, Mellie Shepherd, Grade 9. 40 enrolled, 34 present, 1 tardy. Neatness is noticeable, communications tabooed. Reading lessons are brief. Examples copiously given. Printing asked for an praised. Arithmetic practically taught. The teacher is liked and succeed but allows the responsibility of her position to accompany her home and to her rest, so wearing upon her mind, exiting, and rendering injurious to her health

No. 7: Anna Dirrim, Grade 10, Jan. 12, 1881. There are 10 enrolled and all present. The first in this regard of 78 schools visited. Pupils are polite and respectful. Studious at seats and attentive at recitation. Several read with a free hand and natural tone exceptionally heard. Signals are low. Classes good size, uniform books.

No. 8: Jan. 12, Lottie Brundage. Grade 10. Thirty present. Morning exercises cheerfully taken. No recitation seats. House kept scrupulously clean. Good order. Some watch class exercises. Some study diligently. Primer class taught to keep the place & time. Teacher is earnest, pleasant, interested. Reading taught. Definition read, marked words spelled. Small class recite well in Physiology.

No. 9: Jan. 11, Reuben Sawville, Grade 8. Twenty present, Reading called one to five. A simple program. All write, teacher supplies ink variety of books, copies and without. Sawville has had much experience and has been uniformly successful.

No. 10: Jan. 14, Jennie Blaker, Grade 10. Excellence of the school are neatness, order and good instruction. Small enrollment is a misfortune. Nine pupils compose the school. Three young women shows scholarly habits. The school as it is all that could be wished.

No. 11: Jan. 11, Christie Blaker, Grade 10. Room and furniture neat, wood box rough but serviceable. Cold and inclement without doors. Comfortable within. Teacher excels in reading and teaches by example. Also, requires part of lesson written and brought class. A score present. There is no cringing servility, nor bold freedom but a golden mean open respectful frankness. Ought a teacher to look over work or notice problems while hearing a class? At recess, pupils require to play within ground. Fine arithmetic classes. Recite from problems prepared on slate. Lessons judiciously assigned as regard extent and character.

No. 12: Jan 13, Adelbert Clutter, Grade 5. Enrolled 18, 11 present. Reports from patrons favorable, children docile. Teacher quiet. Classes should be increased in number of pupils and decreased in numbers of recitation, to inspire interest and give more time. There is an ____ to writing-a problem for the inexperienced.

Schools of Troy Township:

No. 1: Jan. 4, James Wiley, Grade 5. First term had 32 pupils. Many small. Room chilly, ceiling smoked. Pipe dangerous are coughing prevalent. Low tones in recitation. Three kinds of geography in same class. History only practical study, grammar dull from lack of illustration. Lessons or study are studious. All are respectful, teacher quiet pronounces, A – troc – city? Giving each syllable by itself to and spelling at sacrifice of Orthorpy.

No. 2: Byron Gilmore Jan. 5, Grade 9. Good house clean lights ____. 23 pupils some grown, Good order, 4 classes arithmetic. Occupy morning hour. Ray and French book in use. As there is progress in machinery or there should be in teaching but the district school of today varies little from that of 25 years ago. As classes are divided interest shortens, also time and progress.

No. 3: John McCurdy Jan. 5, Grade 8. Has taught same school previously. House improved by new seats. Teacher reading familiarly and naturally. Study is general but ___ done. 25 present several called out to help with threshing.

No. 4: Zella McCurdy Jan. 4, Grade 8. Teacher young earnest qualified and experienced, cheerfully encounters difficulties. A common plan cannot be used, each must use tact. Many do well in arithmetic some few succeed in writing.

No. 5: Lotie Chilson, has been succeeded by Clara Wiley?, a prompt, experienced teacher. An old worn out house—wood piled near stove obstructs floor and looks bad. The black board and maps covered with dust indicate no care. Teacher allows frequent interruptions. While hearing classes. Particular paragraphs assigned. 4 classes in Geography. 30 enrolled 20 present. Grade 4, visit made Jan 3rd, 1881.

Schools of Keyser Township:

No. 1: A. P. Foltz ____ by McDugal both good ____. 24 present. Coughy prevails poor order. "Mar to deface" spelled in class and definition told by teacher to each of class. Books open at will and referred to. T____ used in school. Floor defiled by spittle. Reproved by teacher but set at defiance. Seats low. Fair at recitation. Failure as regard the school.

No. 2: Miller occupies a new house, high board, cold room. 24 present. School orderly and easily taught. Stove to from ___.

No. 3: Kelham, 19 present, large pupils. Pupils come in tardily. No opening exercise. Reading well taught, teacher more energetic.

No. 4: Nov. 24. J. B. Scott, 23 present. Lessons too long. Room to cold. Imperfect work. To get through book not master contents.

No. 5: Nov. 25, Irvin Hoffman, 30 present. "The little lamb never sleeps" is this proper? Ought children to have a voice in formity, program? Teacher is ambitious. No grammar. No hots? were in room. A manual of politeness used and lesson given.

No. 6: Nov.25, F. W. Stoops, successor to A. Conrad. A house of "ye olden times." Long seats, raised platform, antique furniture. School tone very low. Room dry and hot. School drosizily dull. Stillness of sloth. Teacher pronounces spells and define himself. 18 present. Smaller sit idly observing commotion curiously. Teacher feel they must be doing. Helpless without having a class before them. Should correct spellers gr. above _____.

No. 7: Miss Sundland ____ Dec. 2d. Teacher and school ____. Some without books and parents too poor to buy. Passing matter a bad custom. It or ei is spelling odd or even. Thus closed a second thorough inspection of our schools and the result shows a discipline which could not be continued a few years would place over county will to the first for qualified and ambitious teachers. There are ___ here but they are uncomfortable for their seclusion is liable to be broken and their weakness explored. They would either come up to duty or turn attention to occupation less closely watched.