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Anti-Slavery and African Americans
In Jennings County
  
As early as 1825 Indiana was known for the Underground Railroad where residents helped slaves from the South escape to Canada and freedom

Early Anti-Slavery Activists with connections to Jennings County.

In Bigger township the Merrells, Johnsons, Spauldings, Andersons, Stephensons, Hicklins and many other families came here from North Carolina and Kentucky, primarily to get away from Slavery. The Aegan Cave, located on Big Graham Creek near the border of Bigger and Vernon Townships was one of the Stations on the Underground Railroad. Probably the best-known in Jennings County was Thomas Hicklin's large two story brick house east of San Jacinto. On Hicklin's tombstone are these words. "An ardent Preacher of the Gospel and able Advocate of human rights-died December 26, 1845 Aged 57 yrear 7 monhts 5 days." 
 
Many families who lived in Montgomery Township were also involved in the Anti-Slavery cause the son of Edward Zener who was raised on Neils Creek, states of his father when he died in 1899  "Father Zener was with the North on the question of slavery, and long before the war was recognized as an "Abolitionist." When the stars and stripes was fired upon in 1861 he was among the first to enlist under the call for three months service, but it was found that he was overage, and he was rejected. However, before the war closed he enlisted again and had the honor of defending his country's flag. He remained loyal to the party of liberty and union until his death." Melinda Zenor married Francis M. Landon and they are buried in College Hill Cemetery, which is named because it is near the Eleutherian College in Lancaster, Jefferson County which was established to educate everyone regardless of color of skin or gender.

The Wells family were also very involved in the Neil's Creek Anti-slavery society where Lemuel Wells and his wife Mary's parents Abraham Walton and Mary Hutchinson Walton were original members.Lemuel's brothers are also mentioned in the minutes of the Society as being members.


AFRICAN AMERICANS IN JENNINGS COUNTY
Much of the Information Below is Excerpted From
Historic Black American Sites and Structures in Jennings County
Published by The Jennings County Preservation Society in 1998

There were a significant number of African Americans who were early settlers in Jennings County. One of the first families to settle in the area was named Kersey, they came from Georgia sometime before 1830. A settlement called Richland or "Africa" settled mainly by fugitive slaves. They still have descendents living in Jennings County.

In 1847 Achilles Vawter and Martha his wife conveyed a plot of land to Spencer King, Ephraim Kersey and Thomas Bradley as Trustees of the Episcopal Church of the Africans so long as they may occupy the same as such. The church was disbanded in about 1900. Some of the foundation stones of the church building still remain. John Vawter originally purchased the land that became Richland and he divided the land and sold 2 1/2 acre parcels to each person. The land where Richland was is now part of the Crosley State Fish Wildlife Area. There were at least 323 African Americans living in Jennings County prior to 1850 after the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 (that allowed owners of slaves to take them back into slavery) the number declined to about 150. Hopefully many of the residents of Richland made it on to Canada and freedom. The families that stayed in Richland made their homes and raised their families there.

The school at Richland was known as the Richland Colored School, it is thought to have closed about 1904.

It is thought that there were 2 cemeteries at Richland on what is now the east side of Hwy 3 south. This highway was formerly called the Paris Road as it leads from Vernon to Paris. The road today does not follow the same route as it did then so exact locations are not known. Gravestones have been found in the area surrounding the cemeteries. The most prominent resident of Richland was Bluford (also spelled Blueford and Blewford) Hill, son of Lewis Hill. Bluford Hill dabbled in real estate, was a chairman on a survey team, farmed and worked as a handyman. Lewis Hill's estate was sold February 9th 1865 by Bluford and was advertised as follows "ADMINISTRATOR'S SALE notice is hereby given that I will sell at Public auction on the 9th day of February 1865 at the late residence of Lewis Hill, late of Jennings County, deceased, all his personal property, consisting of horse, cattle, hogs, wagons, etc. A credit of six months will be given on all sums over three dollars, the purchaser given a note with approved security, waiving valuation and appraisement laws. Sums of three dollars and under cash in hand. Bluford A. Hill"

There was a meeting by the colored people of the County to during which Lemuel Bradon was chosen as the County representative who was being sent to a convention in Indianapolis to petition to the Legislature for their wrights. They proposed to pay the sum of one dollar a piece to pay expenses to and from Indianapolis. The names of those who attended the meeting and are delinquent are Bluford Hill, Agrippa Hill, Hiram Mitchell, Jesse Phillips, William Hood, Sanford Carsey, Riley Harper and Marshall McCoppin. It was stated as follows-We wish to inform our people that if they want their wrights they must do the fair thing themselves. Lemuel Bradon, Nov. 4th, 1865.

December 17, 1841 there was a Richland Methodist Episcopal Church cemetery deeded from Stephen and Sally Carsey to the trustees of the African Methodist Church. Achilles Vawter and his wife Martha deeded land to Spencer King and Ephraim Kersey and Thomas Bradley, trustees of the Episcopal Church of the Africans on August 26, 1847.

In 1835 a mulatto named William Lee and his wife Ellen Hood purchased acerage in what was then Spencer Township in Jennings County, The property was in section 6 northwest, the house was located high on a hill and there was a cemetery that is still there but there are no tombstones. At the base of the hill runs Indian Creek that goes under what is now US 50. His wifes mother Catherine, and her brother William, all owned land next to William Lee's. Their homes were used on the Underground Railroad to house, feed and hide African Americans who were looking for freedom from slavery.

In 1873 The Second United Methodist Church was founded it was located on Lot 15 on Stockwill Street, The tornado of 1917 badly damaged the original building. The committee to help rebuild the Second Methodist include Lottie Taylor, Mildred Good, Lucille Bolden, Pearl & Clara Good, Mary Brown, ALice Litzy, Gail Smith, Millie Brown, Elizabeth Litzy and Melva Goins. Early families of the church were the Goods, Lyles, Eastons, Colberts, Statens, Boldens, Litzy's and others.

In the early 1920's a group of persons began meeting to form a Baptist Church. In October of 1922, they purchased land in the Paybody division of North Vernon from Edmond Overturf where they built a church. The Church was first known as the Second Baptist Church but the members voted to change the name to Corinthian Baptist Church. Trustees at the time of the land purchase were Levi Colbert, Grant Goins and Gloss Taylor. The Reverand L.C. Montgomery served as pastor of the Corinthian Baptist Church for 58 years, retiring due to poor health Rev. Montgomery his wife Berniece and children were leaders in the church.

There was what was known as the colored school located on South State Street which closed on Friday May 9, 1884, this school was taught by W. T. Anderson. The school was moved to Laurel Street and called the Laurel Street School. The following are excerpts from the Banner Plain Dealer dated January 27, 1897, and March 24, 1897. State Street School Honor Roll-Frances Davis, George Staten, Harry Staten, seventh grade, Clarence Good, fifth grade; Minnie Mitchell, Fidelia Burton and Isabella Burton, third grade; Lulu Peck, Clyde Hood, second grade; Carry Johnson, Carl Mitchell, Ralph Malone, first grade A Johnnie Johnson, Ethel Mitchell, first grade B. School notes for the year ending March 12, 1897; State Street School; George Staten, seventh grade; Clarence Good, fifth; Debbie Good, fourth; Walter Johnson, third; Lulu Peck, second. It unknown when the Laurel Street School actually closed. Some students of the Laurel Street School were Otto Easton, George Gentry, Sam Finn, Helen Mae Colbert, Margia and Frances Peck, Eugene O'Neal, Marg Downing, Emma Staten, Gertrude Hawkins, Bert Peck, Bud Johnson, Margaret Colbert, James Colbert, teacher Dorothy Handley, Loretta Colbert, Bud Colbert, Pauline Bolden, Sallie Colbert, Merrill Good, Hazel Good, Carlos Good, Roxie Rickman, Clara Good, Cecil Good, Alford Colbert, Raymond Mason, Elmer Easton, Mildred Litzy, Willard Easton, Frank Lyle, Glen Easton, Lennie King-teacher Mr. Dameron.

The Black School which is now a residence in Vernon was built in 1898.

Benville in Bigger Township along the Jennings Ripley County line and located on Graham Creek also had a African American history but in 1940 the land was purchased by the US Government for Jefferson Proving Ground and little is known about the area except that large Emancipation Day celebrations were held which included people from as far away as Cincinnati.

The North Vernon Stars, an all Black baseball team managed by Mr. Dixon, played a lot of games at the North Vernon Ball Park. Some of the players were Carl Mitchell, William Barton, Ernest Downing, Roy Smith, Clarence Good, Walter Johnson, John Goins, Emmitt Downing, Dixon, Ernest Bolden and George Rollins. Jess Phillips was one of the African Americans who played on the Vernon baseball team around the turn of the Century.

A few of the African American business owners in Jennings County were Paul O'Neal, Don Good, Dudley Dixon, Garfield "Doc" Easton, Gilbert Peck, Emmitt Downing, Edward Staten, Delmar "Ham" Downing, Gloss and Othella Taylor, George H. White, Phillip "Beaky" Good, Josephine "Josie" Colbert, William Harmon and Family.

CIVIL WAR

At first it was not legal for Blacks to serve during the Civil War because of a 1795 law. Although they had fought with valor in the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. This law was followed during the Civil War but by 1862 fewer white men were joining the northern Army. On July 17, 1862, Congress passed an act which allowed the president to use as many people of color as he felt necessary to end the war. In May of 1863, the first Black regiment was formed in Boston, the 54th Massachusetts. In the fall of 1863, the 28th Indiana was formed and Black men from all over Indiana volunteered their services. Answering the call from Jennings County were approximately 45 brave Black men. Families represented were Bolding (also Bolden), Bell, Bullen, O'Neal, Easton, Litzy, Green, Smith, Lee and King. Most of the Black men served with the 28th, however most units after 1863 contained some Black soldiers. In the Vernon and Hillcrest cemeteries, Black soldiers are honored with U.S. Government issued tombstones designated by rank, unit and USCI (United States Colored Infantry) and USCT (United States Colored Troops).

FAMILIES

Smith Family Tree--George Washington Smith was born in Henry County, Kentucky on 12 December 1815, and he was owned by a Gabriel May. At the age of 18, he was sold to Thomas Smith, whom he served for 10 years and then he was sold to Jessee Corrico for $1.000.00, who owned him for 22 years. Upon obtaining his freedom in 1863 (Emancipation Proclamation) and assistance from his mater, he and the children were hid on a train leaving New Albany. When they arrived in North Vernon (Jennings County), they were met by Joshua Milhous, a Quaker and also a great abolitionist, Joshua Milhous assisted the Smith family in finding a place to live. George Smith married again and settled in San Jachito. He was the proud father of 28 children, 16 sons and 12 daughters. His wife, Francis Demint Smith, better known as Grandma Frankie, worked for the Milhous family all her life and was buried in the Hopewell Friends Cemetery along with two of her daughters, Elenore and Barbara. Joshua Vickers Milhous Nixon. President Nixon came to Columbus, Indiana to see his friend, Grant Smith, who was a son of George Smith.

James William Smith, another son of Geroge Smith, born in 1866, also settled in Jennings County and married a Nancy Virginia Dixon. To this union was born Kathaline, William, Rissell, Dauphin, and Inez.

Eulalee (Smith) White, a daughter of James William Smith born in Indiana, grew up and moved to Louisville, Kentucky, where she met and married George Howard White. To them were born two sons, William H. White and Jack Dixon White. We are very proud that our great-grand-mother is buried in the Hopewell Cemetery. Many people in this county are not aware that a Black American, or should I say Black Americans, were cared for and buried in the Quaker Cemetery.

Dixon Family Tree--My grandfather told me that Grandpa Samuel Dixon came from Africa and when the master wanted to change his name, Grandpa Smith did not want an American name, so he told them to call him "Grandpa Smartellic" and this name followed him to his grave. Samuel Dixon was brought to Jennings County from the east coast by Grandma Shannon O'Malley, an Irish lady born in Court County Ireland, and she married him. From these two was born a son, Samuel Nelson Dixon Jr., who married Grandma Annie O'Neal. From this couple came Virginia America (Dixon) Smith, my grandmother and the wife of Jems William Smith. Born to them was Eulaee (Smith) White who married my father George Howard White in Louisville, Kentucky. In 1939, we moved back to beautiful Jennings County (Land of Winding Waters) and by the way, it is said that we have the best drinking water in the United States.

Let us go back to Grandma Annie O'Neal. Her mother America Welsh, along with her sister, Cherity Welsh, were brought here and given their freedom by their master, Steven Welsh (a white gentleman). He will marry Cherity. She will die at an early age 18 and will be the first person buried in the Mitchell Cemetery. Mr. Welsh will also bring Til Farraday, who is the grandmother of the late James Anderson of Jennings County. Great great Grandfather Stephen O'Neal will marry America Welsh who also had a daughter before marriage by the name of Jenny (she was not an O'Neal). This is the mother of Pansey (Mitchell) Lyle. Great great Grandma America will have a son by the name of Samuel O'Neal who will marry into the Hill family.

Just about every black family in Jennings County is related some way or the other. I Jack D. White, am related to: Sadler, Anderson, Mitchellls, O'Neals, Dixons, Goods, Boldens, Downings, Richey, Lyles, Sheltons, Merrifields, Browns, Cooks, Eastons, Johnsons and probably many others I don't know about. Written by Jack Dixon White

Allen Butler was killed when a cannon of which he was in charge exploded during a firing to let people know about a nomination in Chicago. Allen Butler was born a slave, but desired to be a free man and was willing to fight the battles of his country in order that he and his might be free. As soon as possible after the breaking out of the war he secretly made his way from the plantation where he had been held as a chattel, a piece of property, to a recruiting post and immediately enlisted, serving faithfully as a gunner in the Union Army for several years. Afterwards he came to this county and for the past twelve or fifteen years had been a resident of North Vernon. As a citizen he was held in high esteem. Idleness could never be charged against him. He looked after the support and comfort of his family as well as any man could. He was in the prime of his life, strong, energetic and faithful to any trust that may have been given to him, honest and careful. Unable to read or write , yet he fully understood the value of an education and his growing family had all the advantages in this direction that he could afford to give them. He was proud of his family and they of him. Their loss is indeed a great one. Among colored men he looked up to a far man, and he was an equal with whites in many things, far superior to some in loyalty to his country, love and care of family, and conduct with his fellow men. On Sunday evening the burial took place in the city cemetery, preceding which funeral services were conducted in the Methodist Church by the Fev. J. H. Reed, and were attended bu an immense crowd who had love and respect for the man and sympathy for the bereaved family. At the grave Chaplain Robinson on behalf of the McKeen Post G.A.R. pledged a memory of his grave on each recurring Memorial Day, recognizing in him a brave man and soldier, worthy of all the honors conferred on that day on all soldiers who have served their time and got a lasting furlough.

We had genuine respect for Allen Butler and his many good qualities. We knew him for many years and never knew him to act unfairly or with uncristian spirit toward anyone (exerpted from the Plain Dealer, June 11, 1884).

WELSH/WELCH CEMETERY

The Welsh-Mitchell-O'Neal Cemetery is located between North Vernon and Vernon on the Rock Rest Road behind Eula Lee White's house. The following known people are buried there-the first being Charity Welsh, Fannie Smith, Charlie Mitchell, Clyde Mitchell, Minnie O'Neal, Lanora O'Neal, Stanly O'Neal, Mary Magdelene, Cecil Good, Arthur Lyle, Rillie O'Neal, Walter O'Neal, Harold Mitchell, America Welsh O'Neal, Steven Welsh, Jennie Mitchell, Hallie Mitchell, Johnny O'Neal, Stanley O'Neal, Armildred Marie, Pack A. Good, Frank Good, Samuel O'Neal, Mamie O'Neal, Billie O'Neal, Emma Mitchell, and Pansy Lyle. This is an all black cemetery with the last person to be buried there Pansy Lyle in 1969. The cemetery was started by Steven Welsh in the early 1860's, There are also 22 infants buried there, and it is sometimes referred to as the O'Neal-Mitchell Cemetery. There is an obliesk monument in this cemetery with some of the names inscribed on it.

WILLIAM LEE

William Lee and his family were well known in Jennings County. He lived near Indian Creek , in what was then Spencer Township. The following is an account of his death in the Plain Dealer, July 15, 1896.

Uncle Billy Lee, colored, of Indian Creek, died at his home on the 8th inst., aged 101 years. Mr. Lee was born in Woodstock, Shenandoah County, Virginia, April 15, 1795, while the first administration of our government was yet unfinished. At the age of one year he was taken to Rockingham, Virginia, where he ramained to manhood. After marriage he moved to Madison, and worked at the tinner's trade until his removal to Vernon in 1837. He was a drummer boy in the War of 1812 and served his country in the came capacity in the great civil struggle. Three of his children, Mrs. Samantha Easton, Mrs. Julia Hood and Mrs. Sarah Pettiford are yet living.

In June of 1901: Ellen Marcus Lee born in Jennings County about 2 miles south of Vernon, on Sept. 14, 1814 and died at the age of 87 years 9 mo. 6 da. Married at Madison, Indiana to William Lee. He died about 4 years ago. 12 children-3 are living.

ELIJAH ANTHONY (supplied by Edward Downing)

Elijah Anthony, my great-great-grandfather, went from Canada to Georgia and met Grandma whose name was Hannah. She was employed as a nurse-girl over master's children in Georgia. She was sold to Elijah by her slave master for $500.00. He (Elijah) went South to free some good girl and bring her home as his wife. Fortunately he found Hannah and paid $250.00 down on her and went back to Canada for the other $250. Evidently he didn't think wives would be so high.

They were married and setlled in Georgia. He was a Canadian and was in the Cotton Business for himself--(Shipping and Bailing). To them were born 9 children before leaving Georgia: Noah, Klijah, Elisa, Jane, Catherine, Sarah, Nancy, Hannah, and Nellie.

About the year of 18? they decided to come North. They traveled in the usual way, then by oxen and covered wagons and some on mules. This being a long and tiresome journey, they walked a while and rode a while.

After traveling for hundreds of miles they settled in Jackson County, Indiana, and there built a log cabin. They were the only residents of that place. There is now a hotel where the log cablin was first at. The town is now known as Seymour, Indiana.

Later three more children were born to them, namely Ophelia, Jeptha, and Darcus. Vernon, Indiana being the nearest town, they moved there and bought property. They lived there many years and in August 1886, Elijah Sr. died of dropsey at the age of ? and was buried in the River Bend Cemetery at Vernon, Indiana.

After his death, Grandma went to live with Aunt Nancy who had married Zachariah Ratcliffe and lived in Frankfort, Indiana. She died in April 1894 and was buried in the Vernon Cemetery.

Nellie Anthony was the fifth child of this union. She was about 5'4" tall, of some what blocky build weighing between 137 and 140 lbs. She was very light in color and had medium good hair and good features and a splendid soprano voice. She was also a noted nurse to the community, being an herb doctor and midwife, and she had the praise of curing skills that used to be a common sickness at that time.

In about the year of 1856 or 1857, Nellie became the wife of Jesse Phillips (a stone cutter by trade), a full-blooded Cherokee Indian.

Jesse Phillips` father's name was Sylvester and his mother's Nancy. They were both full blooded Indians, living south of Vernon on what is now (i.e. 1920) the Johnny Wenzel farm. This marriage was a odd one as Indians didn't want their son to marry a Negro and the Negro family didn't want their daughter to marry an Indian. But it was to be, evidently, for they lived happily. Between 1858 and 59, a daughter, Jane was born to them and later 12 more children were added to the happy union, namely; Charles, Arnetta, Allison, Hannah, Martha, Emma (My grandmother), Bertha, Nora, Baby, Nancy, Willie Jesse--9 girls and 4 boys.

Nellie died at the age of 37, December 21, 1877, at the birth of Jesse. This left her husband with 10 children the oldest 21, and the youngest two hours old. This caused hardship on the family and a few months later Jesse Sr., her husband, fell seriously ill with pneumonia, but he recovered and continued his work although his lungs weren't quite healed.

He, at the time, was an industrious farmer who owned 80 acres. He worked 40 and rented 40 to Nehemiah Richardson. In October, he was sowing bonedust broadcast preparing for a wheat crop and by inhaling this, it settled in his lungs. He became dangerously ill again and about 5 or 6 weeks later on November 8, 1878 he passed quietly away.

When he passed the children were left alone, but in good circumstance as far as food was concerned. They had an abundance of hogs, horses, fruits and vegetables, wheat, corn, oats and molasses and good food in general. As they grew, they were able to make their own way, but being motherless and fatherless their way was rough and rugged.

Emma Maria was the sixth one of this family. She was born April 30, 1866 and at the age of 21 she became the wife of John Thomas Baulding, who was raised by my great-great-grandmother, who was his grandmother. Although his mother, Sarah Ellen Baulding and father John Thomas Baulding were still living. Unto John Thomas Baulding and Ema Marie Phillips were born 7 children, namely Gertrude, Myrtle,______, Eva,______, Lucille and Pauline. John Baulding changed his name from Baulding to Bolden.

Eva, the third oldest living child of the Bolden family was born on 15 September 1890. In 1915, she married to Emmett William Downing fro Eureka, Illinois. They were married in the city of North Vernon, Indiana. He was a blacksmith by trade and during this time owned his own shop. From this union six children were born. Norbert Bolden, Emma Margaret, Delmar Gerth, Joseph Gregory, Nathalee Audrey, and Edward Allen. Emmett died in May 1948, and Eva passed away November 1970. Both were buried in Vernon Cemetery.

Spencer Easten, was born in July 1848, was mustered into the 28th U.S.C. Invantry in 1863 and honorably discharged in 1865. He married Samantha Lee, daughter of William and Ellen Hood Lee. Miss Lee's father was a native of Virginia and her mother was a North Carolina native. His tombstone is located in Hillcrest Cemetery at North Vernon, Indiana.


The 1850 Indiana Constitution, Article XIII main purpose was that "No negro or mulatto shall come into the State, after the adoption of this Constitution." After the adoption of the Constitution the legislature passed a statute to enforce this Article. Approved on June 18, 1852 the statute outlawed "Negroes" from coming into the state, instructed the county clerks to notify all "Negroes" who were residents before November 1, 1851 to register, and ordered the creation of a register of "negroes and mulattoes". It also gave power to clerks to subpoena witnesses and to issue certificates attesting to the registration of legal residents.

Although law, it was for the most part ignored with very little compliance.


This the point the late Coy ROBBINS and others have been trying to make for a long time. Not just county but state.

"... people of African descent ... were among the early American settlers in southern Indiana. Although their story has never been included in our history books, these brave, courageous souls were among the the pioneers -- both free and enslaved persons."

~ Coy D. ROBBINS
in Forgotten Hoosiers


 THE NEGRO REGISTRY-entries according to the date the individiuals registered at the Courthouse-included are the group registering and the witnesses -by registering they proved that they were residents of Indiana prior to November 1, 1851.  Originally transcribed by Maurice Holmes in 1976.

Carsey, Dennis      Age 64                                                            Registration date.--Apr. 25, 1853
Birthplace    Georgia 
Comments     A negro of yellow complexion, black eyes and hair and of medium height and size
Witnesses      Robert D. McCammon and  James H. Biggs

Carsey, Ephrain    Age 60                                                                                             Apr. 30, 1853
Birthplace     Georgia
Comments     A negro of yellow complexion, black eyes and hair and of medium height and size.
Witnesses      Achilles Vawter and David G. Vawter
                      
Carsey, Alexander     Age 19                                                                                        Apr. 30, 1853
Birthplace      Jennings Co., Indiana
Comments      A negro of yellow complexion, black hair and black eyes and of medium size and height.
Witnesses      Achilles Vawter and David G. Vawter
 
Carsey, Stephen        Age 70                                                                                        May 2, 1853
Birthplace      North Carolina
Comments     A negro man of yellow complexion, black eyes and white hair or nearly so. Nearly six feet high and well proportioned in size.
Witnesses       Robert D. McCammon and  Asa Haney

Carsey, Sally            Age 60                                                                                          May 3, 1853
Birthplace         Georgia
Comments        A negro woman of yellow complexion with dark eyes and hair. Above the medium size.
Witnesses         Joseph Cowell and  Thomas J. Story

Dennis, Peter         Age 41                                                                                             May 5, 1853
Birthplace      South Carolina
Comments     A mulatto man with dark eyes and hair. Medium size.
Witnesses      Achilles Vawter and Robert D. McCammon

Dennis, John William      Age 15                                                                                  May 5, 1853
Birthplace     South Carolina
Comments     A mullato boy with dark eyes and hair
Witnesses        Achilles Vawter and Robert D. McCammon  

Dennis, Sarah Elizabeth     Age 13                                                                             May 5, 1853
Birthplace     South Carolina
Comments     A mulatto girl with dark eyes and hair and light complexion
Witnesses      Achilles Vawter and Robert D. McCammon

Dennis, Mary Eliza          Age 11                                                                                May 5, 1853
Birthplace     South Carolina
Comments    A mulatto boy with dark eyes and hair
Witnesses     Achilles Vawter and Robert D. McCammon

Dennis, James Walter      Age 9                                                                                May 5, 1853
Birthplace     South Carolina
Comments     A mulatto boy with dark eyes and hair                       
Witnesses      Achilles Vawter and Robert D. McCammon

Dennis, Enoch Wagner     Age 7                                                                              May 5, 1853      
Birthplace     Kentucky
Comments    A mulatto boy with dark eyes and hair.
Witnesses     Achilles Vawter and Robert D. McCammon

Dennis, Margaret Ann     Age 4                                                                               May 5, 1853
Birthplace     Jennings County, Indiana
Comments    A mulatto girl with dark eyes and hair
Witnesses      Achilles Vawter and Robert D. McCammon

Dennis, Robert Mazewell Jackson    Age 2                                                            May 5, 1853
Birthplace    Jennings County, Indiana
Comments    A mulatto  boy with dark eyes and hair
Witnesses     Achilles Vawter and Robert D. McCammon

Dye, Daniel      Age 45                                                                                            June 11, 1853
Birthplace     Warren County, Georgia
Comments     A mulatto man of light yellow complexion, with light or blue eyes. Medium  size
Witnesses      Achilles Vawter and Robert D. McCammon

Dye, Nancy Jane     Age 13                                                                                      June 11, 1853
Birthplace     Jennings County, Indiana
Comments     A mulatto girl of yellow complexion and pleasant countenance.
Witnesses     Achilles Vawter and Robert D. McCammon

Dye, Acquilla Ann     Age 9                                                                                      June 11, 1853
Birthplace     Jennings County, Indiana
Comments     A mulatto girl of yellow complexion
Witnesses     Achilles Vawter and Robert D. McCammon

Dye, James William     Age 8                                                                                  June 11, 1853
Birthplace     Jennings County, Indiana
Comments     A mulatto boy of yellow complexion and cross eyed.
Witnesses     Achilles Vawter and Robert D. McCammon

Valentine, Andrew       Age 23                                                                                July 9,  1953
Birthplace     South Carolina
Comments     A negro man of medium size, rather good looking with a yellowish complexion.
Witnesses     Commodore C. Root and Wm. B. Hagins

Harper, Thomas      Age 29                                                                                   July 11, 1853
Birthplace     Elbert County, Georgia
Comment     A negro man about five feet, eleven inches high and weighing about one hundred seventy five pounds. Of a brown-black complexion.
Witnesses    Arad Parks and John Skinner

Harper, Riley     Age 28                                                                                          July 11, 1853
Birthplace     Elbert County, Georgia
Comments     A negro man of medium size and height and of light brown complexion
Witnesses     Arad Parks and John Skinner

Norman, Nancy     Age 47                                                                                        July 18, 1853
Birthplace     Elbert Co. Georgia
Comments     A negro woman of black complexion, with some face warts or moles on her face and somewhat corpulant. 
Witnesses     Wm. B. Hagins and David Merrick

Norman, Augustus      Age 15                                                                                 July 18, 1853
Birthplace     Elbert Co. Georgia
Comments     A negro boy of black complexion-well grown for his age.
Witnesses     Wm. B. Hagins and David Merrick

Norman, Willis     Age 13                                                                                         July 18, 1853
Birthplace    Elbert Co. Georgia
Comments     A negro boy of black or dark brown complexion
Witnesses     Wm. B. Hagins and David Merrick
        
Lee, Ellen       age not given                                                                                   July 18, 1853
Birthplace      Jennings County, Indiana
Comments     A negro woman of light yellow complexion and of medium size.
Witnesses     Wm. B. Hagins and David Merrick

McCoppin, Marshall     Age 38                                                                            July 18, 1853
Birthplace     South Carolina
Comments     A negro man of black or dark brown complexion and of tall stature
Witnesses     Wm. B. Hagina and David Merrick

McCoppin, Sarah      Age 35                                                                               July 18, 1853
Birthplace      Elbert Co. Georgia
Comments     A negro woman of black or dark brown complexion and wife of the above named Marshall McCoppin

Vickery, James      Age 49                                                                                  July 22, 1853
Birthplace     Abbeville Dist., South Carolina
Comments     A negro man of black complexion and of medium size.
Witnesses     Thompson Grissom and Wm. B. Hagins

Vickery, Rhoda      Age 49                                                                                   July 22, 1853
Birthplace     Elbert County, Georgia
Comments     A negro woman of black or dark complexion, of medium build and the wife of the above named James Vickery
Witnesses     Thomson Grissom and Wm. B. Hagins

Anthony, David      Age 53                                                                                  July 22, 1853
Birthplace     Elbert County, Georgia
Comments     A negro man of black or very dark brown complexion, of medium size and gray hair.
Witnesses     Thomson Grissom and Wm. B. Hagins

Anthony, Charlotte      Age 38                                                                             July 22, 1853
Birthplace     Elbert County, Georgia
Comments     A mulatto woman of medium size, of bright yellow complexion, of intelligent countenance and hair nearly straight and smooth.
Witnesses     Thomson Grissom and Wm. B. Hagins

Anthony, William       Age 22                                                                                 July 22, 1853
Birthplace     Elbert County, Georgia
Comments     A mulatto man of yellow complexion and medium size.
Witnesses    Thomson Grissom and Wm. B. Hagins

Hullam, Jasper      Age 10                                                                                     July 22, 1853
Birthplace     Elbert County, Georgia
Comments     A mulatto boy of bright yellow complexion and medium size
Witnesses     Thomson Grissom and Wm. B. Hagins

Harper, Grigg      Age 82                                                                                     July 22, 1853
Birthplace     Prince Edward, County Virginua
Comments     A negro man of dark brown complexion who walks lame. Somewhat bald and gray.
Witnesses     Asa Skinner and John Skinner

Pettiford, Drury      Age 41                                                                                     July 28, 1853
Birthplace     Stokes Co., North Carolina
Comments     A mulatto man of brown complexion and of medium size
Witnesses     Levi W. Todd and David Merrick

White, William      Age 50                                                                                      July 30, 1853
Birthplace     Virginia
Comments     A negro man of black complexion and medium size
Witnesses     Thomson Grissom and Wm. B. Hagins

Phillips, Henry     Age 31                                                                                        Aug. 1, 1853
Birthplace     Warren Co., Georgia
Comments     A negro man of dark brown complexion and of medium size
Witnesses     Ebenexer Baldwin and Joseph Fellenger

Hill, Ananis       Age 51                                                                                        Aug. 5, 1853
Birthplace     Maryland
Comments     A negro man of black complexion, of medium size and with gray hair.
Witnesses     George M. Payne and Avery Fellenger

Anthony, Nancy     Age 22                                                                                    Aug. 6, 1853
Birthplace     Jennings County, Indiana
Comments     A negro woman of  brown complexion, of medium size.
Witnesses      Joseph Fellenger and Harvey M. Cowell

Phillips, Rosa     Age 23                                                                                      Aug. 6, 1853
Birthplace     Jennings County, Indiana
Comments     A negro woman of dark brown complexion and of medium size, wife of Henry Phillips
Witnesses     Joseph Fellenger and Harvey M. Cowell 

Phillips, Elzora     Age 5                                                                                       Aug. 6, 1853
Birthplace     Jennings County, Indiana
Comments      A negro girl of dark brown complexion and small for her age. The daughter of Henry Phillips.
Witnesses      Joseph Fellenger and Harvey M Cowell

Phillips, Cynthia      Age 3                                                                                  Aug . 6, 1853
Birthplace       Jennings County, Indiana
Comments     A negro girl of dark brown complexion and daughter of Henry Phillips
Witnesses      Joseph Fellenger and Harvey M. Cowell

Phillips, Emily      Age 1                                                                                    Aug. 6, 1853
Birthplace     Jennings County, Indiana
Comments     A negro girl of dark brown complexion. Cross eyed. Daughter of Henry Phillips
Witnesses     Joseph Fellenger and Harvey M. Cowell

Hood, John        Age 20                                                                                   Aug. 12, 1853
Birthplace      Jennings County, Indiana
Comments     A negro man of dark brown complexion and of below medium size
Witnesses     Achilles Vawter  and Monrow McMindes

Harper, Jane       Age 56                                                                                  Aug. 12, 1853
Birthplace     Elbert County, Georgia
Comments     A negro woman of dark brown or black complexion with short hair-a little gray.
Witnesses     Milton Boner and Harvey Boner

Hill, Bluford A.     Age 28                                                                             Aug, 15, 1853
Birthplace     Elbert Co.  Georgia
Comments    A negro man of dark brown complexion, of medium size and intelligent countenance.
Witnesses     Ebenezer Balwin and Smith Vawter

Newsom, Emily     Age 19                                                                           Aug. 15, 1853
Birthplace     Jennings County, Indiana
Comments     A negro woman of dark brown complexion and of medium size.
Witnesses     Achilles Vawter and Harvey M. Cowell

Carsey, Eliza Jane      Age 18                                                                     Aug. 15, 1853
Birthplace     Jennings County, Indiana
Comments     A negro woman of brown complexion, rather tall and good looking
Witnesses     Achilles Vawter and Harvey M. Cowell

Evans, Zebidee        Age 19                                                                      Aug. 16, 1853
Birthplace     Halifax County, North Carolina
Comments     A negro man of yellow complexion, of medium size and quick and lively turn.
Witnesses     Achilles Vawter and James M. Baldwin

Carsey, Willis      Age 17                                                                         Aug 16, 1853
Birthplace     Jennings County, Indiana
Comments     A negro man of brown complexion and of medium size. Of intelligent countenance.
Witnesses     Achilles Vawter and James M. Baldwin

Wallace, Elias      Age 19                                                                         Aug 19, 1853
Birthplace     Jennings County, Indiana
Comments     A negro man of black complexion and a little below medium height. Of intelligent countenance
Witnesses    Joseph Cowell and Era Rosa
 
Henderson, Harrison     Age 42                                                                  Aug. 20, 1853
Birthplace     Garrett County, Kentucky
Comments     A negro man of black complexion, of medium size. He has a stoppage in his speach.
Wittnesses     Achilles Vawter and Harvey M. Cowell

Dunlap, Peter         Age 63                                                                         Aug. 20, 1853
Birthplace     Abbeville District, South Carolina
Comments     A mulatto man of light complexion and very tall.
Witnesses     Harvery Boner and Smith Vawter

Dunlap, Jane      Age 51                                                                           Aug. 20, 1853
Birthplace     Abbeville District, South Carolina
Comments     A negro woman of light brown complexion and tall.
Witnesses     Harvey Boner and Smith Vawter

Dunlap, Martha     Age 30                                                                    Aug. 20, 1853
Birthplace     Abbeville District, South Carolina
Comments     A mulatto woman of light yellow complexion and very tall.
Witnesses     Harvey Boner and Smith Vawter

Dunlap, Nancy      Age 20                                                                   Aug. 20, 1853
Birthplace      Abbeville District,  South Carolina
Comments      A mulatto woman of light yellow complexion and very tall
Witnesses     Harvey Boner and Smith Vawter

Dunlap, William        Age 5                                                                Aug. 20, 1853
Birthplace     Jennings County, Indiana
Comments     A mulatto boy of brown complexion
Witnesses     Harvey Boner and Smith Vawter

Valentine, Samuel       Age 28                                                            Aug. 20, 1853
Birthplace     Abbeville District, South Carolina
Comments     A negro man of dark brown complexion, of medium size.
Witnesses     Harvey Boner and Smith Vawter

Valentine, Caroline      Age 34                                                           Aug. 20, 1853
Birthplace     Abbeville District, South Carolina
Comments     A mulatto woman of yellowish complexion-rather tall
Witnesses     Harvey Boner and Smith Vawter

Valentine, Martha     Age 5                                                               Aug. 20, 1853
Birthplace    Jennings County, Indiana
Comments     A negro girl of brown complexion
Witnesses     Harvey Boner and Smith Vawter

Valentine, James      Age 3                                                               Aug 20, 1853
Birthplace      Jennings County, Indiana
Comments     A negro boy of brown complexion
Witnesses     Harvey Boner and Smith Vawter

Valentine, Jesse        Age 4 months                                                Aug. 20, 1853
Birthplace     Jennings County, Indiana
Witnesses     Harvey Boner and Smith Vawter

Carsey, Hulbert        Age 21                                                            Aug. 20, 1853
Birthplace       Jennings County, Indiana
Comments      A negro man of dark brown complexion and of medium size.
Witnesses      Harvey Boner and Charles Rust

Carsey, Mariah Jane      Age 19                                                    Aug. 20, 1853
Birthplace      Elbert County, Georgia
Comments     A mulatto woman of brown complexion, of medium size, wife of the previously named Hulbert Carsey.
Witnesses      Harvey Boner and Charles Hunt

Carsey, George               Age 54                                                       Aug.  24, 1853
Birthplace      Wilkes County, Georgia
Comments      A negro man of dark brown complexion, a little bald on the crown and of medium size.
Witnesses     Levi W. Todd and John S. Basnett

Brandon, Lemuel          Age 17                                                      Aug. 24, 1853
Birthplace       Jackson County, Indiana
Comments     A mulatto man of dark brown complexion, of medium size and intelligent countenance.
Witnesses      Levi W. Todd and Henry House

Phillips, Wesley       Age 25                                                           Aug. 26, 1853
Birthplace       Warren County, Georgia
Comments       A negro man of brown complexion, of medium size and intelligent countenance.
Witnesses       Ebenezer Baldwin and Solon Cowell

Phillips, Joseph         Age 2 & 1/2                                                Aug.  26, 1853
Birthplace       Jennings County, Indiana          
Comments      A negro boy of yellowish brown complexion and son of Wesley Phillips
Witnesses      Ebenezer Baldwin and Solon Cowell

Phillips, Jessee       Age  21                                                        Aug. 26, 1853
Birthplace      Warren County, Georgia
Comments     A negro man of brown complexion and of medium size
Witnesses     Solon Cowell and Ebenezer Baldwin

Phillips, Silvester       Age 19                                                     Aug. 26, 1853
Birthplace      Warren County, Georgia
Comments     A negro man of dark brown complexion and of medium size.
Witnesses      Solon Cowell and Ebenezer Baldwin

Phillips, Stephen        Age 15                                                      Aug. 26, 1853
Birthplace     Jennings County,  Indiana
Comments      A negro boy of dark brown complexion and of medium size.
Witnesses      Solon Cowell and Ebenezer Baldwin

Hill, Lewis                 Age  69                                                     Aug. 26, 1853  
Birthplace      Culpeper County, Virginia
Comments       A negro man of dark brown complexion and of medium size
Witnesses       Achilles Vawter and Levi W. Todd

Hill, Agrippa        Age 15                                                            Aug. 26, 1853
Birthplace      Jennings County, Indiana
Comments      A negro boy of dark brown complexion and a son of Lewis Hill.
Witnesses      Achilles Vawter and Levi W. Todd

King, Spencer Beverly      Age 19                                            Aug. 26, 1853
Birthplace      Jennings County, Indiana
Comments     A negro man of black complexion and medium size.
Witnesses     Achilles Vawter and George M. Payne


Henry, Thomas J.      Age 33                                                    Aug. 29, 1853
Birthplace      Bourbon County, Kentucky
Comments      A mulatto man of yellow complexion, with gray eyes and of medium size.
Witnesses     Achilles Vawter and George M. Payne

King, Spencer          Age 68                                                      Aug. 30, 1853
Birthplace     Culpepper County, Virginia
Comments     A negro man of black complexion, of medium size with gray or white hair.
Witnesses     Levi W. Todd and Thomas Walker

Carsey, Ephraim         Age 32                                                 Aug. 30, 1853
Birthplace        Jennings County, Indiana
Comments      A negro man of dark brown complexion, under medium size and walks quite lame
Witnesses      Solon Cowell and Achilles Vawter

Hill, Jefferson        Age 20                                                   Sept. 1, 1853
Birthplace      Jennings County, Indiana
Comments      A negro man of dark brown complexion and of medium size.
Witnesses      James M. Baldwin and Elisha Bonor

King, Emeline        Age 24                                                   Sept. 5, 1853
Birthplace       Jefferson County, Indiana
Comments      A negro woman of black complezion, a little above medium height.
Wittnesses      Harvery M. Cowell and Achilles Vawter

Johnson, Thomas L.        Age 29                                          Sept. 14, 1853
Birthplace       Jennings County, Indiana
Comments      A negro man of black or dark brown complexion, of medium height, stout  and heavy set with a scar on his chin.
Witnesses       Achilles Vawter and Robert D. McCammon

Dennis, Margaret           Age 37                                         Sept. 16, 1853
Birthplace      South Carolina
Comments       A mulatto woman of light yellow complexion, of intelligent countenance and of medium size.
Witnesses     Achilles Vawter and Joseph Cowell

Johnson, Judah        Age 72                                                 Sept. 16, 1853
Birthplace      Tennessee
Comments      A negro woman of dark bown or black complexion and below the medium height
Witnesses      Achilles Vawter and Joseph Cowell

Johnson, Mary          Age 30                                             Sept. 17, 1853
Birthplace       Fauquier County, Virginia
Comments     A negro woman of black or dark brown complexion, of medium size
Witnesses     Achilles Vawter and Joseph Cowell

Johnson, Sarah Ester      Age 4                                            Sept. 17, 1853
Birthplace     Jennings County, Indiana
Comments     A negro girl of dark brown or black complexion and the daughter of Thomas Johnson and Mary Johnson
Witnesses       Achilles Vawter and Robert D. McCammon

Stafford, Richard              Age 30                                        Sept. 19, 1853
Birthplace      Farquier County, Virginia
Comments     A negro man of dark brown complexion, a little below medium size.
Witnesses     Manlove Butler and Robert D. McCammon

Wallace, Isaiah            Age 19                                          Sept. 19, 1853
Birthplace      Jennings County, Indiana
Comments      A negro man of black or dark brown complexion and of medium size
Witnesses       John S. Basnett and Levi W. Todd

Vickery, Allen         Age 39                                              Sept. 20, 1853
Birthplace       Abbeville District, South Carolina
Comments       A negro man of black complexion about six feet high.
Witnesses       Achilles Vawter and Thomas McCannon

Vickery, Addis        Age 18                                             Sept 20, 1853
Birthplace     Abbeville District, South Carolina
Comments      A negro man of black complexion and of middle height.
Witnesses      Achilles Vawter and Thomas McCannon

Vickery, Oliver        Age 17                                               Sept. 20, 1853
Birthplace      Abbeville District, South Carolina
Comments      A negro man of black complexion, well grown for his age.
Witnesses      Achilles Vawter and Thomas McCannon

King, Jane        Age 26                                                   Sept. 20, 1853
Birthplace       Jefferson County, Indiana
Comments     A negro woman of black complexion and of medium size.
Witnesses     Achilles Vawter  and Thomas McCannon

Stafford, Martha E.         Age 20                                    Sept. 20, 1853
Birthplace      Abbeville District, South Carolina
Comments      A negro woman of black complexion
Witnesses      Achilles Vawter and Thomas McCannon

Hood, James H.        Age 11                                     Sept. 20, 1853
Birthplace      Jennings County, Indiana
Comments      A negro boy of black or dark brown complexion.
Witnesses      Achilles Vawter and Thomas McCannon

Hill, Mary Ann          Age 23                                   Sept. 20, 1853
Birthplace         Elbert County, Georgia
Comments        A mulatto woman of yellowish brown complexion, of middle size.
Witnesses       Achilles Vawter and Thomas McCannon

Hood, William         Age 55                                     Dec. 26, 1853
Birthplace       Rockingham County, North Carolina
Comments     A negro man of medium size, rather stout, of yellowish brown complexion
Witnesses      Achilles Vawter and Elisha Boner

Hood, Ephraim        Age 50                                  Dec. 26, 1853
Birthplace       Rockingham County, North Carolina
Comments       A negro man of medium size, stout built, of brown complexion
Witnesses       Achilles Vawter and Elisha Boner

Hood, Mary      Age 16                                        Dec. 27, 1853
Birthplace       Jennings County, Indiana
Comments       A negro girl of brown comlexion and intelligent countenance, a little below medium size.
Wittnesses       Achilles Vawter and Henry J. Vawter

Lee, William         Age 54                                       Feb. 1, 1854
Birthplace           Rockingham County, Virginia
Comments       A mulatto man of yellowish brown complexion with light or gray eyes, and of middle size.
Witnesses     Robert D. McCammon and Avery W. Bullock

Newby, James        Age 16                                  Feb. 13, 1854
Birthplace         Jackson County, Indiana
Comments      A negro boy of dark brown or black complexion. Is tall and well grown for his age.
Witnesses      William B. Hagins and Henry L. Arnold

Edwards, Grace            Age 18                              Aug. 18, 1854
Birthplace      Elbert County, Georgia
Comments      A negro woman of dark brown or black complexion, rather below middle size.
Witnesses      Joshua Palmer  and Margaret Palmer

Hood, Hannibal           Age 41                                 June 19, 1855
Birthplace       Jefferson County, Indiana
Comments      A mulatto man rather above medium height and of dark yellow complexion.
Witnesses       Achilles Vawter and Robert D. McCammon

Hood, Fanny              Age 46                                   Jan. 28, 1856
Birthplace          Virginia
Comments       A negro woman very tall and of dark brown complexion. (large)
Witnesses        Harvey M. Cowell and Elisha Boner.  



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