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HISTORY OF "OLD" PARIS
Researched and Compiled by: Helen Lewis
Typed and Arranged By Carole B. Tolen

As usual my notes are in this color purple, I did have a few things to add to this excellent work.

Preface

    The impelling motivation for undertaking research into the history of the town of Paris was the desire to know when the town was actually founded - in what year it was really laid out. This was fueled by the widely divergent convictions on the subject. Many supported by flimsy evidence and many completely without the local and state historical context.
    The answer was found in the deed books which are permanently filed in the County Recorders' offices in Jennings and Jefferson counties.
    Perhaps the primary purpose of the deed books is for the recording of deeds for the protection of property owners in case the deed is lost or destroyed. Upon request of the buyer, and for a fee, the deed is recorded, copied verbatim, in the deed book provided by the county, and is kept as a permanent record. The deed not only defines the property and gives the details of the transaction, but the recorded deed can provide proof of ownership.
    One person who did not have his deed recorded was Zachariah Tannehill when he bought the quarter section (160 acres) from James McCartney between 1814 and 1816. In 1828 when he wanted to sell the land he evidently had lost the deed and had to prove his ownership. It is stated on page 351 of Jefferson County Deed Book E that he had done so satisfactorilly and he had "clear title."
    A glance through Part II of this history, pages 12-24, will give a fair picture of the percentage of property buyers between 1818 and 1890 who did not have their deeds recorded. In such cases, when their ownership came to light only when they property was sold and the new buyer had the deed recorded, stating from whom he had bought it, the date of purchase in the column "When Purchased" appears as the date of the sale, preceded by the word "before" meaning that the property was purchased sometime before the date of sale.
    Then came the question, who were the early settlers in Paris? The deed books told who purchased property there - and so it continued and these pages of history resulted. The deed books were thoroughly searched and that information became the nucleus of this history.
    Other sources of information where newspapers, tombstones, etc. - whatever was come across while doing research on other subjects over a period of three or four decades. The aim was to bring all this undocumented information together and weave these tidbits into their rightful place in the historical context, in one sheaf of papers available to all. An effort was not to repeat what had been retold many times or information that could be easily obtained by a visit to the courthouse.
    The census of 1850 was relied upon for statistics, especially ages.
    Whenever a change of ownership had been mentioned in these pages, the appropriate reference as to where it had been recorded in the deed books was given:  as, (A-280) would mean that it was recorded in Book A, page 280; or (11-145), Book 11. page 146.
    No preacher in charge of the Paris Circuit has been named because complete information in this regard may be obtained from the State Church History Department, DePauw University.
    When Paris was laid out, eighteen lots were in Jennings County and eighteen in Jefferson. Very early, the State Legislature, to head off a confusing development in record keeping between the two counties, by and enactment declared the whole town to be legally in one county, Jennings. (Local legend says that Jefferson County, law enforcement (Sheriff) got tired of runs to the rowdy town and pushed to give it to Jennings County). 
    Paris became "Old Paris" about 1867 to differentiate it from the new town of Paris Crossing.

    Indiana Territory was created July 4, 1800, and was comprised of the vast area bounded on the north by Canada and three of the Great Lakes, on the west by the newly-formed state of Ohio, and on the south by the Ohio River, and on the west by the Mississippi River. The Federal Government was pushing to get this great area organized into states as quickly as possible.
    Land Offices to handle the sale of government land to settlers were set where and as needed. Where a settler bought land from the government rather that from an individual it was called a "land grant". The Land Office at Jeffersonville had been in operation several years because of Clark's Grant. Both Jefferson and Jennings Counties were in the Jeffersonville District.
    To identify the location of a piece of property, the land was surveyed and laid out (on paper) into units 36 square miles in area; that is, each of the four sides was six miles in length. A "town" was the north south six-mile measurement. In the Jeffersonville District towns were numbered from south to north; Town 4 would be north of Town 3. A "range" was the east-west six-mile measurement, numbered from west to east. Hence, the north and south sides of a unit were one range (six miles) in length; the east and west sides of the unit were one town (six miles) in length. Then each unit was divided into 36 one-mile square sections, numbered 1-36.
    All this was irrespective of county boundaries, but with the three numbers, section, town and range, any piece of property could be located, and it would be in the right county.
    By 1816, the part of the Indiana Territory that would become the state of Indiana had attained the required population 60,000, as well as had met the other requirements of statehood, so on December 11 of that year was admitted into the Union.
    Those had been busy days for the Territorial Government and the county commissioners it had appointed. They did not wait until statehood to get started but had been dilligently working, defining county boundaries in the populated (southern) part of the state, setting up county seats of government with courthouse (usually log) and laying out and building the network of roads that would make possible the flow of communication between county seats, the Land Office at Jeffersonville and the state capitol at Corydon.
    Actually, since 1800, the Territorial Government had been building roads so it could get the word out. Of the four very important roads emanating from Madison, two were westward bound. One was the Madison-Brownstowns-Bloomington-Terre Haute Road. All of these towns were to be county seats and Bloomington was to be the home of the state university founded in 1816. The other road was the Madison-New Albany-Vincennes (Jeffersonville Included) Road an may have passed through Lexington, the county seat of Scott County. A road branching north from Lexington would connect Vernon with Greensburg, the county seat of Decatur County and with the Madison-Vincennes Road.
(Something to keep in mind when researching your ancestors who either settled for years or just for a short time on a steady move to another area is the importance of these early roads and the fact the Madison was such a key entry point into early Indiana. In my own family Madison was like the hub of a wheel from which people moved west toward New Albany, north into Jennings County and east into Jackson County. Those who started in Switzerland County frequently came to Madison and then went in those directions.)
    Where the two roads, the east-west Madison-Brownstown Road and the north-south Lexington-Vernon Road came together at the Jefferson-Jennings County line, called for a town, especially and inn, and two enterprising young Kentuckians saw the need and the possibilities. (current Indiana road numbers 3 and 250). 
    Zachariah Tannehill had purchased a quarter-section in the northwest corner of Jefferson County from James McCartney who had obtained the land as a land grant in 1814. Tannehill did not have the deed recorded so the date of his purchase is not on record. However when he sold the property in 1828, Jefferson County Deed Book E, page 351, states that he had a clear title"...whereas it appears that full payment had been made".
    Solomon Deputy had entered land on Coffee Creek in December 1810 and had died in June 1816. His sale was held in October 1816 and on the sale list Zachariah Tannehill's name appears as having bought four hogs. So Tannehill was in Jefferson County and settling down to farming by that date.
    Samuel S. Graham had bought by land grant dated October 3, 1818, the quarter-section in Jennings county immediately north of Tannehill's land. But prior to that date, by September 14, 1818, Graham and Tannehill had had 36 lots laid out and numbered, 18 in Jennings county and 18 in Jefferson county, with two streets, Main Street, coinciding with the Lexington-Vernon Road, and Cross Street, coinciding with the Jefferson-Jennings County line. All this by September 14, 1818.

Thus a pioneer town was born!

    Without delay a sketchy document was drawn up and recorded in Jefferson County Deed Book B, page 253, as follows:

    "The town is situated on land donated by Samuel S. Graham of Jennings County and Zachariah Tannehill of Jefferson County, state of Indiana, one-half of said town lying in Jennings County and the other half in Jefferson County, on the land the said donors live on. The town is laid out east-west, north and south. The main street is sixty-six feet wide, the cross street sixty feet, the alleys twelve feet wide, the lots sixty-six feet front and 120 feet back.
    "We, the undersigned, Samuel S. Graham of Jennings County and Zachariah Tannehill of Jefferson County, do hereby give and grant the above-described land without fee or reward to George McCaslin, Ebenezer Brandon and Travis Carter of Jennings County, and John McCrory and Robert Smith of Jefferson County, trustees of said town and to their successors forever for a village.
    "In witness whereof we have hereto set our Hands and seal this 14th day of September, 1818.
                                                                                             /s/ Samuel S. Graham
                                                                                            /s/ Zachariah Tannehill
"Recorded and executed in my office, January 19, 1819.
                                                        /s/ Rh. C. Talbott
                                                              Recorder, Jennings County"


The "plat" below shows little resemblance to the conventional form of plat, yet it serves its purpose in showing the method in which the lots were numbered, how the thirty-six lots were lined up the length of Main Street, and the relation of their positions to each other: i.e., next to, north or south of, across the street from, etc.

The same map or plat, showing thirty-six lots and two streets, Main and Cross streets, accompanied the original entries in the Jefferson and Jennings County deed books 




    In another couple of years, by 1821, Tannehill and Graham had decided on a name for their town. Presumably, they were inspired by the same hope as residents of eight other states (Arkansas, Idaho, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Texas) in choosing the name of that famous "City of Light" for their own town or city.

    And Samuel S. Graham was ready with his entry for the Jennings County records, recorded in Deed Book A, page 177:

"Know all men by these presents that I, Samuel S. Graham of Jennings County and State of Indiana, for and in consideration of the sum of $50 to me in hand paid, the receipt thereof is hereby acknowledged, and for the further consideration of having a town or village fixed on the premises, have granted, bargained, sold and conveyed and by these presents do grant, bargain, sell and convey to John Bovell, John Vance, George McCaslin, John Fleming, Zachariah Tannehill, and John McCrory, trustees of the town of Paris and their successors in office for the convenience, use, furtherance and prosperity to the town of Paris, situated partly in the County of Jefferson and partly in the County of Jennings, all that part or parcel of land on which part the said town of Paris is now laid out and on which are lots 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, and 36. beginning on the line between Jennings and Jefferson counties, at the corner of Main and Cross Streets where they intersect with each other, thence running west 10 rods, thence north 40 rods, thence east 20 rods, thence south 40 rods, thence west 10 rods to the place of beginning; the north and south, east and west lines to correspond with the points of the compass to which the town was laid out and the said tract containing five acred, being a part of the southeast quarter of Section 33 in Town 5 north of Range 8 east of the Jeffersonville District, to have and to hold the above described tract forever.
"And I, the said Samuel S. Graham, do covenant with the above trustees that I am the lawful owner of the above-mentioned premises, that I hold them free from all encumberances except by bond to the trustees above-mentioned and that I will warrant and defend the same against the unlawful claims or demands of any person whatsoever and I do by these presents bind myself, my heirs, my executors, administrators, unto the above-mentioned trustees of Paris and their successors in office forever.
"In witness, whereof I, the said Samuel S. Graham, and Esther, my wife, in testomony have hereunto set our hands and seals this 10 day of September, 1821.

                                                                           /s/ Samuel S. Graham
                                                                          /s/ Esther Graham

"In the presence of  William Buckley
                               John Gudgell
                               John Reed"

    You will note that Zachariah Tannehill donated his eighteen lots in Jefferson County "without fee or reward", while Samuel S. Graham sold his eighteen lots in Jennings County "in consideration of the sum of $50 to me in hand paid."
    In his autobiography, Charles K. Laird (Lard) tells of the kindness and generosity of the Tannehills. His autobiography was included in the material collected by Eleanor Robertson of Deputy in her interviews with residents of Graham Township, Jefferson County, who often shared their scrapbooks with her.
    When the Lairds, after their long journey from New England arrived at Madison on November 20, 1820, the man who agreed to "haul them out" refused to leave his corn harvest. The Tannehills came to the rescue.
    Laird relates (keep in mind he was always a little extravagant in his rhetoric), that when his brother, Samuel Laird , went to "a high-spirited Carolinian: or as I have always delighted to call him, a Kentuckian, for his wife, a Kentucky woman , and the best woman that ever trod this earth.... This man was Zachariah Tannehill who had a cart and a yoke of oxen, was under no obligation to my father..."Just as quick as my brother went to Major Tannehill, for he was a major and fought under General Jackson at New Orleans, and told him our situation, he told him he could not start before two o'clock with his ox cart, but at that hour he would start and be a the ferry about midnight. Mrs. Tannehill immediately saddled up her mare for my mother and sister to ride...
    "He arrived at our boat about midnight and brought corn for his wife's mare, and in the morning he encouraged us all he could. He told us we were founding a great country and it became us not to notice hardships. He was a scholar and one of Nature's noblest men.
    " We started early in the morning and arrived at Paris, Major Tannehill's residence, before sundown. Mrs. Tannehill received my mother just as if she had been her sister and the family as if they were her own. I looked at her with astonishment to see how she appeared to disregard the inconvenience to herself and family and tried to make every one of us welcome and happy,"
    By 1828, Founding Father Tannehill was ready to move on. He sold his Jefferson County property (E-351) and moved to German Township, Bartholomew County, where he and his sons were very active in real estate development (maybe he learned about real estate in founding Paris) in and around Taylorsville.
    His three sons were (1) James G. whom Charles K. Laird remembered as being about his age (Charles K. was born in 1808): (2) Richard S. whose first wife, Sally Ann, died in March 1849 and is buried in the Tannehill graveyard; he then married Maria D. Hammond in June 1849, daughter of James Hammond of near Paris and cousin of Charles K. Laird; and (3) Zachariah B. who died in 1873, aged 47 years, and is buried in the Tannehill graveyard beside his wife Anna who died in 1855, and their two year old son Willie, who died in 1855.
    The Bartholomew County map issued in 1960 shows the area around the I-65 Interchange as Tannehill Park and the bridge across Driftwood River a short distance west as Tannehill Bridge. Since there is no other bridge in the township, it has to be the two-span covered bridge pictured on page 79 of the Indiana History Bulletin of June 1960, Vol. 37, No. 6, captioned "This bridge spans the Driftwood near Taylorsville".
    The old Tannehill graveyard where Zachariah and his wife, Ursula, are buried is just east of the bridge. The DAR member who made a record of the tombstones (a copy is in the Indiana Historical Library) tells that she was driving along looking for the graveyard and didn't see it. She crossed the bridge and turned around. As she was driving back, she took one last backward glance and saw tombstones rising above some weeds on a hilltop. Some stones had fallen and some were almost illegible. Anyone who has tried to decipher numberals from a corroding stone that has borne the ravages of the weather for almost 100 years can appreciate that.
    According to Zachariah's stone, he died September 30, 1864, aged 79 years, 10 months, 26 days; hence he was born November 4, 1784.
    The 1810 Census shows his residence to be Campbell County, Kentucky, in that year. Presently, the chief city in Campbell County is Covington, across the Ohio River from Cincinnati.
    In 1856, he was sitting as a judge on the Common Pleas Court of Bartholomew County. (W-292).
   
    The Land Office played a major role in the lives of the early settlers. Things were not so busy that the Commissioner of the Land Office could not visit with them when they came in, knew some of them personally, knew more about all of them than anybody else, and could best advise the Territorial Legislature at Vincennes in appointing the original county commissioners. The first commissioner of the Land Office at Jeffersonville was a Graham; first John R. or K., then G. W. around 1835. That must account the naming of Samuel S. Graham as one of the three original county commissioners of Jennings County. He was around 35 in 1817; too young to have had much experience.
    The organizational meeting for Jennings County was held at Vernon on May 17, 1817, at which the Board of County Commissioners was announced; but they had met previously, on March 7, 1817, to order a courthouse. To keep in perspective how things were at the beginning - it is said that in 1816 John Vawter and three to six families settled there; that would be a cluster of less than ten cabins.
    The first sale of lots in Vernon was June 17, 1817. The courthouse which the commissioners ordered would not add much prestige to the cluster of cabins comprising the village. It was : "...the Commissioners will give $25 each year for three years to the first person who will build and rent to the county a house of the following size: To be of hewn logs 24 feet in length by 18 feet in width, one story high, a good tight roof, and floor above and below laid of loose plank from the saw; one door and shutter well hung. One 12-light window, chimney and fireplace. The walls to be made tight before winter comes on and sufficientcy of benches for the accommodation of judges, commissioners, jurymen, etc." A 12-light window, 12 small panes, would be of average size, not a tiny one, nor an especially large one.
    Col. Hiram Prather, in his "History of Jennings County" written around 1876, refers to County Commissioner Samuel S. Graham as "Col. Samuel Graham". If Samuel was, in fact, a colonel, he must have earned his military rank in the Battle of New Orleans, January 15, 1812, where Charles K. Laird says Tannehill earned his rank of major. Both might have been members of the contingent of sharpshooters, who grew up on the frontier polishing their marksmanship by "barking off squirrels" and who marched from Kentucky to New Orleans to the aid of General Andrew Jackson in that battle. Everyone has read how the delicate New Orleans ladies swooned at sight of the tall, crude Kentuckians in their coonsking caps? The long march down and back would have given Tannehill and Graham plenty of time to make and nurture a friendship. They had to have been previously acquainted to have worked so swiftly in the founding of Paris.
    Even though the venture of founding a town did not bring the quick financial gain they may have hoped for (Tannehill had left for "greener pastures" within ten years and by the early 1840s Graham had gone or returned to Shelby County, Kentucky, in financial ruin) they did plant a town that grew into some importance and developed a happy living environment for many good people for almost 100 years.
    In 1832, Esther, the first wife of Samuel S. Graham, died aged 48 years, and was buried in the original Paris graveyard; hence she was born in 1784. That gives the best clue to the age of Samuel S. In those days, couples tended to be of about the same age; though usually the man was two or three years older. So, the best guess would be that he was born in the first half of the 1780's. between 1780 and 1785.
    By the early 1830's, Samuel S. was having grave financial difficulties (C-215, D-235), in 1834, he gave a deed of trust to a Madison lawyer who handled such matters for indebtedness totalling $1,192.25, for which he gave Lot #8 and "all other lots or parts of lots in said town of Paris belonging to me except that on which the church stands...to be sold when the majority of creditors so instruct." The fact that lot #8 is listed separately and thus stands out from "all other lots" leads to the conclusion that Graham may have lived on that lot. It had never been sold and it was a most desirable location.
    The brick house on Lot#8 could well have been built by Graham before 1834. Its rather primitive simplicity bears out the assumption that it was built very early. The house is composed of four rooms, two downstairs and two upstairs, with no central hall. Each of the downstairs rooms has a door opening on the street and a window. Its unique feature is the huge chimney on the outside of the house at the south end which suggests a kitchen fireplace. The south room downstairs could well have been a kitchen-dining-sitting room. The north downstairs room could have been a bedroom-parlor. The bed neatly made during the daytime with one of the charming woven coverlets housewives were then weaving in their homes, would leave plenty of space for parlor furniture: the small table bearing the Bible in the center of the room, the stiff settee, and three or four straight chairs. Upstairs, there could have been innumerable beds. That may seem crude, but in a day when many families were living in one-and two-room log cabins, it would be quite commodious, even elegant.
    It is a testimony to how well and sturdily the house was built that it is still standing in 1991, intact and appearing solid, after 120 to 160 years. In those days the main part of the house was built to last, with less soundly-built lean-tos to provide work space and additional sleeping accommodation, were added as needed. This house looks as if it had outlived more than one lean-to. (
The house is still being lived in in 2009 and looks much the same as it did when built, there is a picture of it in the Jennings County Photo Gallery on this site.)
   
Ellison Dixon bought the house in 1846 and lived in it until his death in 1888. Seven children grew up in the house; when Ellison bought it, he had but five children, the oldest 9 years old and the youngest an infant. Things were still lively in 1880 and Ellison was 70 years and his wife had died. Living there with him were his son, Bob, whose wife had died in 1873, Bob's two daughters, aged 8 and 12, Ellison's daughter, Eliza Leech, and her two sons, aged 7 and 9.
    Returning to Samuel S. Graham, by 1842 he had left Paris for Kentucky and " the majority of creditors had so instructed" to sell his Paris property. Some lots were sold that year and the remainder in 1845.
    You wonder how Samuel S. could have accumulated debts totalling more that $1,000 in a day when life-styles in rural Indiana were so simple, really expensive items were usually not attainable, and food, including meat, was mostly homegrown and cheap. He could have built the brick house for from $300 to $400.
    There was a James Graham, born in Kentucky in 1800, living in Paris in 1850 who may have been the son of Samuel S. and Esther. It is true that Esther would have been only 16 years old in 1800, but in that day it was not too uncommon for girls to marry in their teens. Aside from the fact that James lived in Paris, the best argument for the belief that he may have been their son was the naming of his two oldest children: Samuel and Esther Ann. Were they named for their grandparents: Or was it just a coincidence?
    Samuel S. spent Christmas of 1850 in Paris and he must have had a compelling reason to do so. If James was indeed his son, he had presented him with four grandchildren and Esther Ann, James oldest daughter had married George W. Ray in 1845 and she could have providied a great-grandchild by 1850.
 (in 1850 George W. Ray and Esther Ann were living in Marion Township and indeed did have two children Elzora and Sarah E., they later had at least two more children in Indiana, M.E. & Cynthia, and then a son James who was born about 1859 after their move to Missouri.) 
   
By whatever traveling method Samuel S. used in making the trip from Shelby County, Kentucky, to Jennings County, Indiana, in winter, it would have been an arduous ordeal for a man between 65 and 70 years old and he would have needed a desire stronger than the invonvenience to have undertaken it.
    Soon after 1818, Graham had provided land for more town lots #37-#77, and a third street, parallel and east of Main Street, named Second Street but called Back Street, had been added.
  

    A thorough survey was made of the town in late 1829, as follows: (Book G, page 229)
    "This is a map of the town of Paris in the County of Jennings and State of Indiana and constitutes part of the southeast quarter of Section 33, Town 5 north of Range 8 east, of the district of lands offered for sale at Jeffersonville.
      The beginning corner is designated by a stone planted in the southwest corner of Lot #9, being 92 poles southwest of the south 84 degrees 45 minutes southeast corner of the aforesaid southeast quarter of Section 33/ Main Street bears north one degree east. Main Cross Street bears south 84 degrees 45 minutes west, and each of them is sixty-six feet wide.
Lot #1 contains 7,633 square feet.
Lots 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,:::47,48,49:::50.51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59:::60,61,62,63,64,65,66,67,68,69:::70,71,72,73.74,75,76,77,78,79:::80,81,82,83,84,85,
86,87,88,89:::90,91,92:::107,108,109:::111,112,113, 114, 115,116,118,119:::120,121,122,123,124,125 contain 8,712 square feet each.
Lots 9,46,63,64 contain 8,976 square feet each.
Lot 28 contains 9,914.19 square feet.
Lot 45 contains 11,783 square feet.
Lots 29,30,31,32,33,34,35,38,39:::40,41,42,43,44:::92,94,95,96,97.98.99:::101,102,103,104,105,106,110 contain 10,032 square feet each.
Lots 10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19:::20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27 contain 8,712 square feet each.
Lots 17,100,117 contain 7,128 square feet each
"The superficial are of the whole town plat is near 42 acres and one rod.
"Surveyed on the 27, 28, and 29th days of October, 1829, and the 13th and 14th days of May, 1830, and laid down by a scale of 200 feet to an inch.
                                                                              By William C. Bramwell
                                                                                   Surveyor of Jennings County
"N.B. Flower deluce (Fleur de Lis shows the true meridian variation 5 degrees 67 minutes west."

The Dutton Addition -
    "Before me, James W. Lanier, Notary Public in and for said county (Jefferson) personally appeared William Dutton who acknowledged that all that part of the town of Paris in the County of Jefferson and state aforesaid, as is known and described on the plat as lots numbered 84,83,82,81,80:::79,78:::85,86,87,88,89:::90,91,92,93,94,95,96,97,98,99:::100,101,102,103,104,105,106,107,108,109"""110,111,112,113,114,115,116,117.
118,119:::120,121,122,123,124,125 were laid out by him, the said William Dutton, as an addition to the said town of Paris on a part of the northeast quarter of Section 4, Town 4 north of Range 8 east and being in the county of Jefferson. That the streets in said addition with the exception of Water Street which is only 40 feet wide, are a continuation of those of the original town are of the same width and run in the same directions and that each of the said lots contains 8,712 square feet and that said plat commencing with Lot #84 on the west side of Main Street and ending with Lot #125 as before enumerated and the aforesaid explanation are made for the purpose of being admitted to record.
    "In testimony whereof I hereunto set my hand and affixed my seal of office at Madison this 28th day of May in the Year 1832.
                                                                                      /s/ J.W. Lanier, Notary Public
"Recorded July 7, 1841, by John Walker, Recorder, Jennings County"
    There were never lots numbered 126 through 139 (maybe they were saving those numbers for lots that might someday be laid out on the south side of Water Street). For whatever reason, when the Cobb Addition was laid out around 1841, the lots were numbered 140 - 150.

The Cobb Addition -
    "This is a map of some additional lots in the town of Paris laid off by John Cobb, lying south of and adjoining Main Cross Street and west of the town in the northeast quarter of Section 4, Town 4, north of Range 8, east, of the district of lands offered for sale at Jeffersonville, beginning at the northwest corner of Dr. W. B. Goodhue's acre lot. Said Main Cross Street bears north 85 degrees 10 minutes east by the point of the compass, said lots laid off on a right angle with Main Cross Stree; Lot #140 containing 7,619 square feet; Lots #141,#142,#143,#144,#145,#146,#147,#148,#149,#150 contain each 8,712 square feet. Laid down by a scale of 200 feet to the inch.
                                                                                   /s/William D. Bacon
                                                                                        Surveyor, Jennings County"

    William Dutton must have had an especially keen business nose to have detected the scent of a new market in Indiana while he was still in Kentucky, almost before it happened. On September 1, 1828, the year he entered business in Madison, he bought good business lots near the main intersection in Paris, as well as Tannehill's property south of Main Cross Street, out of which he immediately carved Dutton's Addition.
    He died April 15, 1840. A legal advertisement in connection with his store at the corner of Mulberry and Main Cross Street in Madison appeared in the "Madison Courier" follows:
    "WILLIAM DUTTON - Died in this city on the 15th of April in the 51st year of his age, Mr. William Dutton, merchant. His desease was consumption. In his death, the numerous family he has left behind, the church of which he as a member, and the community in general has sustained a great loss.
    "Mr. Dutton was a native of Vermont. In very early life he removed in connection with his father's family to Chenango County in the State of New York, in which state he remained until the year 1817, when he came to the West. After spending two years in Ohio and eight or nine in Kentucky, he removed to Indiana in January 1828 settled at Madison where he continued his residence until the time of his death.
    "As a man of business he was distinguished by his strict personal attention to it and his activity and success in the prosecution of it. This circumstance, together with the extent of his business, will cause his death to be extensively felt. His loss will be sensibly felt by the poor who always found in him a friend and whose wants were often relieved by his kindness and liberality.
    "Four years previous to his death, Mr. Dutton made a profession of religion by connecting himself with the Second Presbyterian Church in this city. He was regular and uniform in his attendance on the ordinances of God's House and remarkably liberal in his contributions to sustain the institution of religion. On his death bed, however, he repeatedly expressed deep regret that he had permitted the calls of business to engorss so much of his attention to the neglect of the higher claims of religion and the cultivation of his personal piety. A consiousness of his deficiencies in these respects gave him much uneasiness during his last sickness and occasioned him much darkness and many doubts respecting his future prospects. But previous to his departure his mind became comfortable and he was able to express a decided hope of acceptance through the merits of the Redeemer in whose atonement and righteousness he reposed all his confidence of pardon and eternal life.
    "His funeral was attended by a very large concourse of citizens who thereby manifested their deep sympathy with the bereaved family and their sense of the loss the community had sustained by this afflictive event."

William Dutton made a lasting contribution to Paris and the lives of its citizens.

    In 1836, a "Corporation Election" was held. If it was an action in anyway connected with the incorporation of the town, it was a little premature. Nevertheless, it was held and recorded in the front of Deed Book D:
                                                         "Corporation Election Returns of Paris"
We, the undersigned President and Clerk of an election held in the town of Paris on the 21st day of May, 1836, for the purpose of electing five trustees for said town, do certify that Dennis Willey of the First Ward got 13 votes and that James S. Smyth got two votes; and Charles K. Lard of the Second Ward got 13 votes and Brannock Phillips got two votes; and Buel Eastman got one vote; of the Third Ward, Ephraim Harlan got 13 votes and Massia Byfield got 7 votes; for the Fourth Ward, Joseph Harrington got 12 votes and Thomas Rowland got one vote and John Cobb got two votes; of the Fifth Ward, Lawrence Hollenbeck got 13 votes, Henry Hollenbeck got one vote and Samuel Weir got one vote.

    *A true poll of the above-named Election
*/s/Brannock Phillips, Clerk                                           /s/Samuel Weir, President

    It is interesting to note that the winning candidate in each ward received 13 votes with one exception, which in the Fourth Ward, Joseph Harrington received 12 votes.

    A total of 51 votes was cast.


                                                                       PROPERTY OWNERS IN PARIS
                                                                                           1818-1890

Deed Book
Number                                                         
 & Page                                                                             Year
Number                     Lot Numbers                              Purchased      Name
3-337 #142-144, 145 part 1866 Abrams, Elias
E-195
H-30
#86,#87
#110
1830
1842
Adams, Alexander H.
H-216 #109 part 1843 Ammons, Alfred
M-333 #16, #101 1849 Ammons, Henry
B-91
B-93
J-128
J-46
J-531
#5, #6, #11-#13
#10
#106 part, #107 part
#109 part
#105 part
1825
1828
1844
1844
1845
Ammons, Thomas
D-585 #4 part 1835 Anderson, Francis
20-378
27-25
#11, #106 part, #107 part
#1,#2, #3
1880
1882
Antle, Mrs. Louisa
H-419 #140, #141 1843 Arbuckle, Matthew
16-243 #29, #30 part, #43 part, and #44 1869 Ashton, Jesse
11-241
25-403
#85 part, #86-88,
Phillips Property part, #95-#98
1870
1884
Ayers, Joseph
28-477 #27 part 1887 Ayers, Leonidas (son of Joseph)
12-381 #140, #141, #142 part 1872 Ayers Mrs. Sarah A. (Mrs Benjamin)
(incorrect-actual husband John Ayers)
15-76 #9 part 1874 Bailiff, Phineas
G-366
G-422
H-215
J-279
K-170
Q-364
Q-363
T-61
W-513
#4 part
#97
#74
#40
#37-#39, #41, #71-#73 and #77
#35, #36
#9 part
#34
#53 part, #54 part, #75 part
1840
1841
1843
1845
1846
1852
1853
1855
1858
Bantz, George W.
Y-361 #28 part 1861 Bantz, George W. with Elias Deputy -Bantz & Deputy
S-597 #15 1855 Bantz, John Milton
D-308
K-258
L-48
#4 part
#57
#56
1836
1846
1847
Bantz, William K.
R-359 #140, #141 1853 Barnes, Hiram
E-89 #109 1830 Black, Calvin
Z-167
Z570
2-399
#13
#12
#33, #33.
1862
1863
1865
Blake, Lewis H.

23-299
23-300
30-274
#13
#11, #106 pt., #107 pt
#12, #105 pt
1882
1882
1885
Blinn, Alpheus W.

S-296 #28 pt. (liquor license) 1865 Boyd, Travanion
S-78 #146, #147 pt. 1853 Brandon, Bathsheba
#24                                          before 1845 Brandon, John
F-349
D-73
#23      Jefferson County
#95, #96
1828
1836
Brown, Henry
8-242 #45 pt. 1868 Brown, Thomas
F-147 #95, #96 1839 Brown, William W.
C-147
C-505
#34
#5/6, #46
1832
1834
Byfield, Massia
F-459 #55, #74 1826 Campbell, Alexander
G-235
#95, 96
#117, 118                             before
1841
1865
Cave, Stephen
Cave, William
C-495 #119, #120 1835 Chandler, Samuel
C-315 #105 1834 Childs, Eunice
27-372
30-553
#14, 103
#13
#56                                       before
1886
1889
1851
Clem, Annas

Clemmons, John
D-476

D-481
#14, #19-21, #79, #84, #85, #97
#98,#121-125
#9, #61-63
1837

1837
Cobb & Willey
(John Cobb & Dennis Willey)
B-262
B-475
D-196
D-397
#80, #90, #91
#89
#23
#22
1830
1830
1836
1837
Cobb, John


E-8
E-376
#22
#16
1838
1839
Cobb, Richard
D-479
K-149
#23
#15, #102  (with Benjamin S. Gaddy)
1837
1839
Cobb, Thomas
(Cobb & Gaddy)
H-409 #143 1844 Congdon, Daniel
G-140 #15 1850 Congdon, John M.
J-176/7 #105 pt., 109 pt. 1845 Davis, Daniel
N-238 #45 pt. 1849 Davis, Daniel
M-114 #32 1848 Davis, Evan
L-141
O-130
R-393
#32
#31 pt., (Joseph Davis & Co.)
#27 pt.
1847
1850
1853
Davis, Joseph

D-160 #51 1835 Davis, Joshua
H-488 #58, #69 1843 Davis, Mary
18-235 Phillips Property, pt. 1878 Delapp, George
J-167 #142 1844 Deputy, Soloman
K-11
P-441
R-527
U-192
X-6
1-194
2-38
#109 pt.
#147 pt., #148-#150
#19-#21, #84
#140, #141, Phillips Prop.
#85 pt.
#22, #23
#110
1844
1852
1853
1856
1860
1863
1864
Deputy, William






R-358
V-423
#140, #141
#29, #30 pt., #43 pt. and #44
1852
Deputy, Zachariah
H-57        #55                                                                 1842         Disciples of Christ (Reform Church                                    
U-173 #27 pt. 1856 Dixon, Calvin, W. R.
5-70 #15 1865 Dixon, Catherine A. (Mrs. Calvin W.R.)
35-194 #14, #103 1884 Dixon, Charles L.
D-516
K-31
K-32
J-627
K-48
16-246
X-267
#12
#9 pt.
#47
#8
#46 pt.
#29, #30 pt., #43 pt. and #44
#1,#2, #3
1837
1843
1844
1846
1847
1875
1860
Dixon. Ellison





22-153
23-19
26-64
26-62
27-163
30-543
#162
#10 pt.
#16, #101
#15
#110, #111, #113-#125
#103
1851
1882
1885
1885
1886
1889
Dixon, Harmon




K-242
T-453
T-452
#76
#28pt
#147 pt., #148-#150
#55, and #56
1846
1855
1856
1856
Dixon, Henry S.


M-373
8-159
#10 pt., #64-#66
#15
1849
1868
Dixon, Henry W.
C-235

C-210
#76
#16, #99, #100             before:
#32, #33
1834
1834
1834
Dixon, John
Dixon, Patrick W.
16-245/46   #29, #30 pt., #43 pt., and #44
1875
Dixon, Robert S.
P-157
U-177
Z193
#56 (with W.W. Dixon)
#13, #14
#7 pt., #12, #48, #108, #142, and #143
#102, #103                   before:
1851
1856
1863
1869
Dixon, Samuel M.


24-227
30-128
#29 pt., #30 pt., #43 pt., and #44
#7 pt., #48 pt.
1883
1889
Dixon, Thadeus S.
X-510
S-137
25-545
#46, #47                       before:
#1, #2, #3
#32 pt.
#140, #141, #142 pt.
1888
1860
1865
1884
Dixon, William H.


31-439 #104, #105 pt. 1890 Dixon, Williamson O.
D-431
F-476
J-72
J-304
K-143
K-547
L-50
M-229
M-332
O-50
O-48
P-157
P-245
T-571
T-572
W-306
2-219
2-420
11-112
#104
#55, #74
#68
#67
#70
#59, #60
#57
#10 pt. (with Samuel Dixon)
#9 pt.
#64-#66
#71-#73, #77
#56 (with Samuel Dixon)
#58, #69
#61-#63
#68, #70
#111, #113-#116, and #121-#125
#110
#117-#118
#119, #120
1836
1840
1844
1845
1846
1847
1847
1849
1849
1849
1850
1851
1851
1856
1856
1859
1864
1865
1870
Dixon, Williamson W.

















12-332 Phillips Prop. pt. 1872 Driver, Catherine
1-183 Phillips Prop. pt. 1862 Dryden. Thomas
A-491
A492
D-538
#59-#65
#7 pt., #9
#19-#21, #84, and #112-#125
1824
1828
1828
Dutton, William

B-238
B240
B241
#27-#49
#5, #6
#4 pt., #7 Corner, #34, #49, #46, #51-#54, and 75 pt.
1830
1831
1831
Eastman, Dr. Hezekiah

D-208
D-210
D-209
E-27
#106
#10, #11
#107
#46
1834
1835
1836
1836
Eastman, Buel


M-335 #140, #141 1849 Evans, Turner
32-204 #57-#73, #77 1890 Farthing, Mrs. Harriet
12-301
12-302
Carding Machine Lot
#92-#94
1871
1872
Farthing, Robert
H-19 #110 1841 Ferris, John L.
15-100 #109 pt. 1872 Files & Shepherd
10-465 #92-#94 1871 Files, John L.
G-86
K-149
26 pt., #91 pt.
#89, #90 (with Thomas Cobb)
1841
1845
Gaddy, Benjamin S.
C-216 #34 1833 Gaddy, William T.
S-278 #45 pt. 1854 Gardner, Nathan T.
F-79 #25 1838 Gasaway. John
V-62
V-367
#17, #100
#30 pt., #31 pt., #42 & #43 pt.
1856
1856
Gerrish, Ansel
D-2
E-453
D-1
F-2
P-245
#27
Goodhue Property
#25
#24
#35, #36, #147 pt., and #148-#150                            
1832
1834
1835
1838
1850
Goodhue, Dr. Walter B.


12-460 #140, #141, #142 pt. 1869 Gore, Samuel
Q-332 #95, #96 1843 Graham, James
D-71 #5/6 (Tavern) (with Massia Byfield) 1836 Griffith, James
8-485 #92-#94 1869 Hagina, Emma
C-324 #92-#94                                                                         1841 Hagans, Joseph                                                                                                    
C-349
F-192
#101
#92-#94 (with Joseph Hagen)
1834
1839
Hagen, William B.
N-106 #26 1825 Hammond, James
C-477 #7 Corner, #6 pt., #49 1835 Harlan, Ephraim and George
C-280
G-33
#25
#76
1832
1840
Harlan, Ephraim
K-166
K-171
O-47
O-45
T-503
4-494
4-513
B-125
#48 pt.
#144, #145
#143
#142
#27
#13
#12
#11, #105 pt., #106 pt., and #107 pt.
1840
1841
1847
1849
1855
1865
1865
1867
Harlan, George






#18                                                             before: 1834 Harlan, Joseph
Y-537 #45 pt. 1862 Harman, James, and Albert Smyth
B-379 #117, #118 1830 Harrington, Joseph
S-234
W-18
W-429
#24 pt.
#14
#25, #26 pt.
1854
1857
1859
Hendricks, Joseph

6-419 #31 pt. 1866 Hendricks, Simeon
10-341
12-411
#1, #2, #3
#31 pt.
1870
1872
Hess, Martin
A-288 #55, #68, #74 1825 Hews, Dr. Benjamin B.
M-296 #17, #100 1848 Higgins, Eli H.
L-148
M-301
O-468
#101
#16
#102
1847
1848
1848
Higgins, Horace S.

S-134
U-371
#15
#81-#83
1854
1856
Hildreth, William
1-267 #110 1861 Hill, Allen Jr.
E-142
V-363
1-163
6-66
#10,#106 pt.,#107 pt.
#103
#22, #23
#28 pt.
1837
1856
1860
1867
Hill, Daniel M.

W-449
6-216
15-502
#11, #105 pt., #106 pt., and #107 pt.
#142 pt., #143, #144, and #145 pt.
9 pt.
1859
1867
1875
Hill, James A.

K-305 #27 1839 Hill, Thomas Sr.
D-122 #15, #102-#104 1836 Hollenbeck, Lawrence
E-177
E-266
#46
#111
1838
1838
Hopkins, Johnson & Robinson
                                                      
11-444 #14, #103 1872 Hopkins, John
#17                                                           before 1834 Hudson, Ananias
D-47 #107 1830 Hudson, Boyd W.
2-369
5-293
9-381
#27 pt
#24-#26
#30 pt., #31 pt., #43 pts., and #42
1865
1865
1869
Hudson, James B.

C-234 #105 1830 Hudson, Joshua
12-66 #27 pt. 1868 Hudson, Silas M.
C-134/5
F-10
K-216
O-16
#4 pt., #53 pt., #54 pt., and #75 pt.
#81
#80, #25
#26
1833
1839
1846
1850
Hunt, George

T-130 #25, #26 pt. 1855 Hunt, Sarah Jane
#15, #23,  and #102-#104                   before 1836 Hutchinson, Abraham P.
G-444 #74 1842 Hutchinson, Parker B.
F-504
G-355
#102
#97, #98
1839
1839
Jacobs, John
F-502 #102 1840 Johnson & Reynolds
H-65 #103 1842 Johnson, James F.
F-57
F-158
#79
#81
1839
1839
Jones, Constant B.
J-28 #1, #2, #3 1832 Jones, Evan, Heirs
26-298
26-302
29-137
30-145
31-109
#34, #39-#41
#4
#51
#1, #2, #3
#32, #33
1885
1885
1888
1888
1889
Jones, Edgar



O-21
T-47
#6 pt., #7 pt., #48 pt., and # 49 pt.
#5/6, #50, #51
1849
1855
Jones, Harriet
Atwood, (Mrs. Philip)
V-148
5-491
12-329
#80
#91
#78, #79
1857
1865
1872
Jones, William A.

D-314
D-557
D-563
E-284
F-439
#5/6
#51
#5 pt.
#49 pt.
#50
1837
1837
1837
1838
1840
Keith, James



18-207 #32, #33 1877 Kohle, William
F-98
C-227/9
H-407
#24    Jefferson County
#106, #82
#85
1829
1834
1844
Laird, Charles K.

E-549 #85 1839 Laird, Horatio N.
2-162
#24, #25, #26 pt.
#16, #101                                                    before 
1861
Lark, John
2-425 #24, #25. #26 pt. 1871 Lawrence, William H.
11-242 #85 pt., #86-#88 and Phillips Prop., pt. 1871 Lefebre, James M.
12-410 #24, #25, #26 pt. 1871 Lefebre, John W.
12-410 #31 pt. 1871 Lefebre, Daniel L.
22-357
16-549
#19-#23, #84
#14, #103
1881
1885
Lefebre, Rebecca E. (Mrs. James M.)     
F-303 #80 1838 Leming, Sarah
N-438 #140, #141 1850 Lett, Newton
F-138
U-516
19-243
#95, #96
#25, #26 pt.
Phillips Prop., pt.
1837
1856
1879
Lett, Whitfield

#45 pt.                                                                   Before 1858 Lewis, Ezekiel
19-401
21-121
21-361
#11, #12, #27 pt., #105 pt., #106 pt., and #107 pt.             
#28 pt., #45 pt.
#24, #25, #26 pt.
1879
1880
1882
Lewis, Sarah D. (Mrs. James E.)


C-397 #95, #96, #101 1830 Long, Register
C-312 #7 corner 1830 Lyon, Micajah (with Jacob Kyser)
32-315 #92-#94 1891 Lowery, Charles L.
5-369
22-17
#27 pt.
#27 pt.
1866
1881
Masonic Lodge, #221, F & AM
R-207 #78 1851 McCrory, James (McCrury)
Y-245
Z-568
#31 pt.
#7 pt., #48 pt.
1861
1863
McCumber, Frank
E-215 #110, #111 1837 Metcalf, Harrison D.
H-64 #109 1842 Metcalf, Henry O.
C-90 #22 1833 Metcalf, Uriah
D-469
H-496
H-498
#112
#109 pt.
#52, #53 pt. 
1837
1843
1844
Methodist Church

2-281 #31 pt. 1865 Miller, Hugh R.
Z-165 #14 1862 Morey, Robert G.
13-61 #7 pt., #48 pt. 1873 Morey, Sarah M. (Mrs. Robert G., Sr.)
19-32 Phillips Property 1878 Murphy, Thomas J.
V-199 #81 1857 Nixon, Thomas L.
#32                                                                 before: 1847 Paine, Thomas L.
17-510
10-206
21-251
#4
#89, #90
#91
1877
1879
1881
Perrine, Rachel Ann


                                            
L-101 #16 1842 Pegg, William
K-207 #76 1845 Pencoast, Edmund
R-511 #27 pt. 1854 Phillips & Barnes
A-352
C-437
G-44
H-76
G-432
#47-#49
#7 pt.
6 pt.
Phillips Property
#102
1824
1835
1840
1842
1850
Phillips, Brannock 



T-562 #113-#116 1856 Prather, Mary Ann (Mrs. Hiram)
E-311 #85, # 97, #98 1838 Prentiss, Nathaniel Shepherd
H-425 #83    Jefferson County 1831 Ramsey, Benjamin
#4 pt., #7 pt., #22                                         before: 1833 Ramsey, John F.
C-352 #98 1841 Rawlings, Henry M.
S-26
W-212
#34
#1, #2, #3
1854
1858
Ray, Addison
26-127 #7 pt., #48 pt. 1885 Ray, Caroline  (Mrs. Daniel L.)
20-82
24-211
30-54
30-74
30-542
#4
#34, #39-#41
#31 pt.
#29, #30 pt., #43 pt., and #44
#11, #12, #105 pt., #106 pt., #107
1879
1883
1888
1889
1889
Ray, Daniel L.


M-313 #15 1848 Ray, George W.
F-363 #110 1839 Rector, Daniel
K-478 #104, #105 pt. 1847 Reynolds, Francis Henry
13-60 #14, #103 1872 Reynolds, John
G-295
H-187
#104, #105 pt.
#9 pt., #46 pt.
1841
1841
Reynolds, John A.
14-182 #104, #104 pt. 1872 Reynolds, Mary A. (Mrs. John A.)
29-463 #19, #23, #84 1888 Riggs, George W.
C-258
C-461
#18
#16, #99, #100
1834
1834
Robertson, David
E-175
F-278
H-315
#64, #65
#10 pt.
#66
1838
1839
1842
Robinson, Simeon M.

(Heirs)
F-97 #24                                     Jefferson County 1821 Roseberry, George
22-71 #45 pt. 1877 Rowland, Eliza J. (Mrs. Isaac H.)
5-409 #26 pt. 1865 Rowland, Isaac H.
H-327
E-200
E-198
E-197
W-207
W-234
4-434
7-318
8-508
#88,                                    Jefferson County
#86, #87
#81
#79
#27 pt.
#95, #96
#78
#85 pt.
Phillips Property
1830
1834
1837
1838
1852
1854
1864
1865
1867
Rowland, Thomas





O-327
P-475
20-12
#76                                                                           
#27 pt.
#74
1850
1852
1879 
 
Russell, Dr. Benjamin F.               
      

B-480 #26 pt. 1850 Sampson & Cobb
U-195 #18, #99 1856 Sampson, Benjamin A.
W-226
9-382
#53 pt., #54 pt., #75 pt
#30 pt., #31 pt., #42, and #42
1858
1869
Sampson, David A.
11-497 #81-#83 1856 Sampson, Elijah
B-480
#26 pt.
Carding Machine Lot/before
1832
1832
Sampson & Cobb
11-497
J-250
L-426
O-15
#81 pt.
#79
#89, #90
#80
1832
1845
1849
1849
Sampson, Ephraim


4-472 #89, #90 1865 Sampson, Francis M.
5-490 #95-#98 1866 Sampson, Martha J. (Mrs. Frank)
25-365 #140, #141, #142 pt. 1885 Sampson, Mary R. (Mrs. Elijah)
1-399 #17, #100 1864 Sampson, William
W-282 #55, #56 1857 School
23-200 #109 1882 Shepherd, Amos R.
H-126 #146, #147 pt. 1842 Shilladeay, Samuel G.
#15                                                              before                                                        1854 Shrewsbury, S. A.
18-166 #13 1877 Smith H. C.
Y-446 #28 pt. 1862 Smyth, Albert and John
A-450
C-225
L-410
G-303
K-605
#28
#106
#45
#9 pt.
#8, #370#39, #41k #56, #57, #70-73, and #77         
1827
1830
1834
1838
1845
Smyth, James S.



F-139
J-301
J-300
#95, #96
#60, #67
#59
1837
1842
1845
Spencer, David

11-90 #28 pt., #45 1870 Stout, Isaac C.
R-338
S-278
#17, #100
#16, #101
1853
1854
Stratton, James H.
3-238
8-319
Phillips Property
#28 pt., #45 pt
1866
1868
Stribling, Silas S.
K-240/1
K-409
O-390
#23, #28 pt.
#22
#27 (with James Cox)
1846
1847
1850
Stribling, Uriah B.

8-503 #28 pt., #45 pt. 1869 Studer, Jacob
V-443 #25, #26 pt. 1858 Swincher, James B.
G-62 #4 pt. 1836 Swincher, William
U-481
U-482
#97, #98
#95, #96
1856
1857
Temples, William
E-219
R-293
#88-#90
#16, #101
1836
1852
Terrill, Edmond
18-332
24-232
#13
#29 pt.
1877
1883
Terwillegar, Evaline
S-132 #24 1851 Thomas, Elliott
B-200
G-180
#26                    Jefferson County
#27                    Jefferson County
#52                                                        before
1818
1828
1844
Thomas, Evan Jr.



M-271

2-159/7
3-263/4
#80                                                        before
#45 pt.
#88-#90                                                before
#140, #141, #142m #143
#14, #103
1838
1848
1845
1864
1866
Thomas, Freeman



14-307 #57-#73, #77 1874 Tibbetts, Jane L. (Mrs. Joshua)
D-394
F-70
F-393
#34
#33
#17, #100
1837
1839
1840
Tobias, John T.



9-144
10-244
13-330
#27 pt.                                                  before
#45 pt.
#142 pt., #143, #144 and #145 pt.
#146, #147 pt.
1863
1869
1870
1873
Tobias, John M.


5-525/6 #28 pt., #45 pt. 1866 Todd, William (father of child murdered by George Sage )
C-417
E-71
E-314
#5, #6
#46
#109
1834
1836
1838
Twaddle, Hiram

B-446 #114-#116 1832 Tweedy, Patrick
2-335 #34, #39-#41 1865 Waring, Sarah
#108                                                      before 1835 Watson, Robert
C-581
D-49
D-591/9
F-212
#95, #96
#27
#82, #83
#81
1834
1836
1837
1839
Weir, Samuel


G-20 #32 1839 Wells, Ira
C-338
D-13
E-291
E-292
#24
#108
#53 pt., #53 pt., #75 pt.
#47
1834
1835
1837
1838
Wells, Lemuel

2-124
8-158
15-1
#45 pt.
#30 pt., #31 pt., #42 and #43 pt.
#89, #90
1864
1868
1874
Whitsitt, James H.

G-64 #4 pt. 1837 Whitson, Benjamin F.
H-97 #59 1842 Wilkerson, Franklin B.
C-254
T-123
#32, #33
#92-#94                 
1834
1855
Wilkerson, John
           
B-73
B-419
C-441
D-432
D-433
D-437
E-173
E-357
E-355
F-257
F-521
#29-#31, #42-#44
#86, #87
#53 pt.
#16, #18, #99, #100 
#32, #33
#114-#116
#61-#63
#113
#17
#101
#111
1829
1832
1834
1837
1837
1837
1838
1838
1839
1839
1839
Willey, Dennis









1-334 Phillips Property 1863 Williamson, William       
D-53 #51 1836 Wilson, Andrew
O-267
P-150
P-428
#16, #101
#11, #105 pt., #106 pt., and #197 pt.
#15                       
1850
1851
1852
Wilson, Brannock                                       
                                                             
#4                                                    before                                            1842 Wilson, George                                                
T-504
X-107
Y-369
3-448
7-166
6-155
#110
#45 pt.
#14
#140, #141, #142
#7 pt., #48 pt.
#78, #79 (with William C. Wilson)
1854
1858
1862
1866
1866
1867
Wilson, James H.




F-276
F-302
#104
#105
1840
1840
Wenscott, Greenville
26-550 #78-#80 1885 Wykoff, Patrick
18-206 #32 pt., #33 1858 Wykoff, Thomas
C-195
H-337
K-553
#113, #119, #120
#98
#143
1830
1843
1847
Zenor, David



                                                                                           PART III

Some specific aspects of pioneer villiage life

   In the following section you will find allusions to MDL, as furnishing background momories to the documented facts. The initials refer to Minnie Deputy (the third initial was added when she married) who grew up in Paris in the 1870's. She was born in September 1865, her mother died in January 1870/1 at which time her father, Solomon Deputy, took her and her infant sister to live with his parents, the William Deputys, who lived in the brick house which William Deputy had purchased from John Cobb in 1853. Minnie lived in this house from 1870 to the mid-1880s. She attended the Paris school, 1871-1877.


                                                                                      THE TAVERN

   In pioneer Indiana, an inn was commonly called a "tavern", however, these early "taverns" were hostelries to provide food and shelter to the traveler and were in no sense saloons.

   It is not hard to imagine with what eagerness and interest the early settlers in Graham Township, Jefferson County, in which the south part of Paris lay, watched the felling of trees, surveying, and platting of the new town. What saving of travel time, what convenience, a town in their midst would bring to the area.

   Thomas Ammons who had entered land in Graham Township in 1815, was born in 1781 near Pittsburg of Scotch-Irish parentage. He was a man of some Scotch business acumen and in 1825 invested in property in the new town by buying five centrally located lots for $5.00 (B-91). Included in these five lots were Lots #5 and #6. It was Ammons who decreed that the site of the future tavern would be on these two lots and thus determined where the hub of activity of the town would be.

   The tavern standing in the 1870's and after was, in size, the equlvalent of four large rooms, two downstairs and two upstairs. A huge fireplace occupied the center of the building, emitting warmth to the north and south. Whether there were partitions...other than the fireplace is immaterial.

   Downstairs there were two doors, flanked by windows on each side, opening on the street allowing exit or entrance from or into the space on either side of the fireplace. There were six windows across the front upstairs.

   Large slabs of stone were laid in front of the building, forming a sidewalk or uncovered porch, and serving the further purpose of making it impossible for an entrant to step right out of the mud into the house.
 
   MDL, remembered the men, perhaps six or seven, less than ten, sitting in straight chairs in front of the tavern on summer evenings, leaning their chairs back against a tree or the building. In winter, they probably held their nightly discussions before the fire.

   There is no doubt that the building still standing is the one of the 1870's, but when it was built is left to conjecture. It could have been built by Thomas Ammons before 1831. The argument for this is that he bought the lots in 1825 for about #1.00 each, but he sold them to Dr. Hezekiah Eastman in 1831 for $300 (B-240); this would cover the cost of a very substantial frame building.

   The 1850 Census lists two residential guests at the Tavern: Charles M. Mobley, aged 29 years, teacher/saddler; and William B. McKay, aged 26 years, dentist, who would have remained long enough to take care of the dental work which had accumulated since his last visit.

   How could they have served food to the hungry traveler without a kitchen? From a heavy iron kettle containing meat and potatoes and whatever else was available, suspended from a crane swung over the fire. The same would be true in summer when the kettle would be suspended over the fire out of doors. Any pioneer could construct the frame from which to hang the kettle in a matter of minutes. Bread could be purchased from a housewife or baked on a stone in front of the fire.

   The moving of the state capital from Corydon to Indianapolis in 1825 may have reduced some of the travel through Paris, but there was still the Land Office at Jeffersonville. There are plenty of accounts describing travel in pioneer days and of drovers on their way to the market, probably Cincinnati. Paris, too, had her share of drovers going to Madison. There was even a tale of a drover herding turkeys through Paris.

   Thomas Ammons sold the Tavern to Dr. Hezakiah Eastman in 1831 (B-240). Ammons may never have lived in Paris; his farm in Jefferson County was but a few riding minutes distant.

   The four-room basic building of the Tavern was not adaptable to a family. There would have been an attached building containing living quarters for the tavern-keeper: work-rooms, kitchen, bedrooms and a parlor where marriageable daughters could receive their suitors. This additional building has long since disappeared.

   Several tried their hand briefly at operating the Tavern the first few years. One was Hiram Twaddle who was a little more interesting than most.
   Twaddle, who was born April 30, 1809, came to Paris in 1832 from Lexington, Scott County, where he had just married Charlotte Thompson. Charlotte died after May 17, 1837, and Hiram left Paris and was settled in Vernon by 1842.
   In December, 1842, he was married by John Vawter to Philena Ann Cook, a widow with two children. He and Philena Ann had three children, born in 1844, 1846, and 1850. She died in 1854 and is buried, alone, in the Vernon cemetery.
   Hiram then married Julia Bullock of the same prominent Vernon family as Caroline Bullock Bantz, wife of William K. Bantz. Julia was born July 17, 1823, 14 years younger than her new husband and she was still living in 1890.
   The Vernon newspaper of April 6, 1864, announced that "Julia B. Twaddle will operate a millinery store. She will buy in New York for cash and will not be under sold." Accompanied by their daughter, Mary, born in 1866, she did go to New York regularly until she sold her shop in 1870.
   Hiram, meanwhile, was ticket agent for the railroad from which job he retired in 1876 because of ill health. He died January 30, 1883, and he and Julia share a stone in the Vernon Graveyard: her death date was never inscribed on the store.
   After Hiram's death, she evidently opened up shop again because she and Mary were back in New York in December, 1884. In 1886, the newspaper notes that Julia B. Twaddle bought a fine new English piano, and on April 7, 1886, Mary was married to R. Grant Baughn "at the home of the bride's mother in Vernon."

   Beginning in 1837, for over fifty years the Tavern was operated by two tavern-keepers. It was a family oriented hostelry where children grew up, each carrying his share of the work-load, and where daughters were married. You may be sure that during this time there was no drunken rowdiness, nor slovenly houskeeping. MDL remembered that in the days of flat-irons heated on wood-burning stoves, in very hot weather, the "girls at the Tavern" arose at four o'clock in the morning to do the ironing.

   The first of the two tavern-keepers was James Keith who bought the Tavern in 1837 (D-314) and brought with him seven children of whom the oldest was eleven.
   James Keith was born in Maryland in 1791/2. There were good Virginia names in his and his wife's families, like Mason, and Park (Parke, Parks) which he kept in rememberance in the naming of his children.
   He married Lucy P. Wilson in Indiana in 1821. She was born in Kentucky in 1795, and died between 1854 and 1860. Her health may have been a reason for his giving up the Tavern in 1854. Their daughters had married well while the Tavern was their home. Sarah, the eldest, married Silas M. Stribling, a prominent merchant of Madison and Paris: and Frances married a well-to-do farmer of Marion Township, Daniel Lewis. (more on the Keith and Lewis families by Jonathan Lopnow at his web site Jennings County
Genealogy
.) 


   In 1855, Phillip Jones bought the Tavern (T-47) and brought a family of seven children, aged from infancy to fourteen years. 
   Jones was born on October 1, 1810, in Ohio, and died February 7, 1899. His wife, Harriet Atwood Jones, was born in Ohio in 1810, and died in 1903. Both are buried in the New Section of the Paris graveyard, on a plot purchased by their son, Bill (W.A.) in 1882.


                                                      WOOLEN MILL and CARDING-MACHINE
  
The woolen mill and carding-machine were locally famous in their day. They served an area of at least a ten-mile radius in all directions.

   The purpose of the carding-machine was to comb out or remove the cockleburrs and such from the wool. In the olden days of long, cold winters and inadequate home-heating, wool was the winter fabric for both outer and under garments, socks and stockings. Each farm raised sheep to provide wool for weaving or knitting for the family's use. Combing wool for individual farmers would justify a town's having a carding-machine, but its being used in conjunction with a mill which manufactured fabric would more than triple its use. Then, too, a mill would be a market for the farmers' surplus wool, as well as a source of supply of woolen fabric for farmers whose homes were too small to contain a loom.

   Toward the 1850's, when the population had increased and woolen clothing was still a necessity to get through the cold winters, the carding-machine and mill brought farmers into Paris from southern Jennings, southeastern Jackson, northern Scott and northwestern Jefferson counties, and of course, while they were in town, they would have visited the stores which were known to carry good merchandise.

   At the Jennings County Fair in 1870, Patrick Dixon of Paris received prizes for "domestic manufacture" of a pair of wool blankets, ten yards of white flannel, and ten yards of jean material. These items had to be manufactured in a home, not in a mill, but they are representative of what the mill produced and Dixon must have attained his knowledge and skill while working at the mill. As for the jean material, the dictionary describes it as a "durable, twilled cotten cloth used for work-clothes." Because it was so durable and cheap, it was the pioneer farmers' most-used material for clothes worn in the field and around the barn. Indiana actually had a governor in early days who was well-known for his ignorance and was called "Old Blue Jeans".

   In 1815, Evan Thomas, Sr., the "Old Revolutioner" of the Hopewell cemetery, entered land in what is now Lovett Township, a short distance north of Paris. Whether his young son, Evan Thomas Jr., had worked around a carding-machine before the family crossed the Alleghennies heading West or whether Travis Carter, a wool-carder and one of the original trustees of the town of Paris, convinced him of the wisdom of making the operation of a carding-machine his first business venture for whatever reason, young Thomas was eager to get started and bought Lot #26 for his carding-machine operation in June, 1818, three months prior to the official date of the town plat, September 14, 1818. So, the Paris carding-machine was as old as the town.

   The partnership of (John) Cobb & (Ephraim) Sampson bought the business from Evan Thomas, Jr., in February, 1832 (B-480). Five years later, 1837, John Cobb had removed himself from the partnership and joined Dennis Willey in business, Willey & Cobb.

   The following deed book entry discloses that before December, 1837, Sampson & Cobb had already constructed a "dwelling" house which is still standing at the south end of Main Street, south side of Water Street, facing north or northwest. This entry (D-476) reads "...a piece of land on the south side of Paris, on which a dwelling house and carding-machine, formerly occupied by Sampson & Cobb, supposed to contain about 1/3 acre..." This sounds like the carding-machine was operated in the house; later this time (1837) the mill may have been built, on the north bank of Neil's Creek, a very short distance from the house.

   The mill was built on the most spectualr spot, where the hill rises perpendicularly from the creek-the drop from the open mill door to the mill-pond below was literally breathtaking. The site was chosen because it was convenient to the carding-machine and the road. The builders ignored the fact that the creek could never provide the volume of water required to power a manufacturing mill. But they made do for about fifty years, falling back on horse-powr when needed, and later on steam-engine power.

   With the building of the railroad it was possible to get easily fine woolens from the big northeastern mills, with not too much difference in price.  And the farmers turned from raising sheep to raising hogs which were much easier to raise and more profitable.

   The demise of the wollen mill came in 1887. The newspaper of March 27, 1887.
says it:
   "The old woolen factory at this place (Paris), on which Gen. John Morgan demanded a ransom in his raid through Indiana in 1863, is being torn down."
   It is good they gave it a sort of coup de grace and didn't just let it stand until it collapsed under its own weight into Neil's Creek.

   So ended an era.

   All of the Sampsons in Paris were descended from one of two Sampsons who came up from Kentucky, Ephraim and Benjamin A. The temptation is to assume they were brothers, but knowing the trickery of genealogy and lack of proof, no attempt will be made to figure out their relationship-if not brothers, they could have been cousins.

   Ephraim, the wool-carder, was born in 1801. His first wife Martha, died in 1857, aged 57 years, and was buried in the Paris graveyard. He then married Ellen, widow of James Willey. She died in 1865 and was buried by the side of her first husband in the Willey family cemetery. Ephraim was still living in 1884 when he bought property in Sand Creek Township (Brewersville( to spend his last days near his eldest daughter, Jane (Mrs. Milo) Higgins and his grandchildren. (Ephraim married a third time March 6, 1866 to Jane J. Dinwiddie.)
   Ephraim Sampson's children were: Jane, 1823-1913, married Milo Higgins, lived at Brewersville; James, born 1827, a saddler; Rebecca J., born in 1829 (married Oct. 29, 1850, Evan Tobias); Nancy, born 1834, married Bill (W.A.) Jones and died at Bedford about 1882; Francis M. (Frank), born 1836, had died before August 7, 1848, in Douglas County, Illinois (married Martha Day); Mariah, born in 1841, married Hood (James H.) Whitsett. 

   Benjamin A. Sampson, shoemaker, was born in 1799, died April 29, 1866; all of his children were born in Kentucky, the last one in 1841; he purchased his first property in Paris, in 1856. His children were:  David A., born about 1826. was a carpenter and did just about everything, served in the Civil War, (died April 25, 1909) is buried in the Paris graveyard; Isaac, wool-carder, born 1829; Joseph a cooper, born 1830, served in the Civil War, in 1885 his widow, Nancy A., received $1,000 pension "in arrears"; Betsy, born 1832, Elijah, (Jan. 27) 1834-(Dec. 27)1879, buried in the Paris graveyard; Sarah, born in 1836; William, (Sep.28) 1841-(Oct. 14)1875 (Buried in the Paris graveyard).
   In 1856, Benjamin A. had bought lots #18 and #99, and his widow, Martha continued to live on them until her death in 1879. MDL remembered she would or did say. "My names was Patsy Charles (maiden name) and I came from Old Kaintuck." She survived her husband 13 years. She lived across the street from MDL in the 1870s, and MDL remembered her house was very clean by the standards of the day. But she had a little hen that came in the house every morning, hopped upon the bed, and laid an egg between the pillows. MDL, never having seen it, yet believed it without question.
   Her youngest child, Billy, was married had children, and was living in Vevay. In 1864, he left his family, returned to Paris and bought Lots #17 and #100, north of his mothers lots #18 and #99. That must have been the year he found he had epilepsy. He died in 1875, four years before his mother, and is buried in the Paris graveyard.
   Elijah lived on an acerage between Paris and Neil's Creek, near the mill, and may have worked at the mill. His widow, Mary R., was still living in 1885; the newspaper notes that her parents from Cincinnati were visiting her in that year. MDL remembered that their children were Orville, Ida, Ellsworth, and Eva. Eva married Henry Morey, in December 1884.
   Dave (David A.) Sampson's strongest claim to fame lay in his wife, Bellsora. Any woman in Paris would have told you that Belle Sampson was the one indispensable person in town--she had a millinery shop.


                                                                                      CHURCHES

PARIS METHODIST
   In the "founding" days of our state, it was the custom for the founder of a town to make a benevolent gesture toward its citizens by donating a town lot for a house of worship. So did Samuel S. Graham; specifically, providing Lots #35 and #36, at the north end of Main Street, west side, to the members of the Methodist Episcopal Church without charge indefinitely. The Methodists constructed a log meeting house at this site and trudged faithfully from wherever they lived in the town to this northwest corner every Sunday morning until 1837. 

  On December 1, 1837, (D-479) the trustees (Edward Toner, Lawrence Hollenbeck, Joseph Herrington, John Gasaway, and Evan Thomas, Jr.) bought from William Dutton for $1.00 Lot #112, on the east side of Second Street, a short distance south of Main Cross Street. There, they erected a modest but suitable frome structure in which they worshiped until the late 1920s when the building was struck by lightning and burned. Although the congregation had faithfully held services there until the destruction of their church, they then disbanded, thus ending the Methodist public worship in Paris.

  For many years, perhaps from the beginning, the Methodist preacher in Paris was "in charge of the Paris circuit." All meetings dealing with matters pertaining to the circuit were held in Paris.

  It was the policy of the Methodist State governing body to appoint new preachers to the various churches every two years, irrespective of the wishes of the individual congregations. Admittedly, there were both good and bad features of this policy, but it was carried out "religiously", nevertheless.

  The congregation was composed of honest, decent, compassionate members who tried to lead a truly Christian life and did all the things a loyal congregation was supposed to do in that day, such as holding a "wood chopping" for the preacher every fall and occasionally buying him a new suit...and above all, they were regular in their church attendance.

  Until lots #35 and #36 became the New Section of the Paris cemetery, they were known as the "meeting house" lots.
(Somehow in all my research I had missed the fact that what is now the cemetery where my family is buried called the "Gaddy/Wykoff" cemetery, was once the location of the original Methodist Church and is what is called here the New Section of the Paris Cemetery. The Old section is what is now called the Cave/Dixon cemetery. This also shows how over time names of things like cemeteries can change.)

  Although they had always had to provide a dwelling for the preacher, around 1843 they seriously began to look for a parsonage site. In 1844, Evan Thomas, Jr., made available to the trustees (John Fish, Thomas Rowland, John Miller, Samuel Weir and Brannock Phillips) Lots #52, on which stood a good brick cottage, and the south half of adjoining Lot #53, "the intent of which is to hold the property to be used as a parsonage." (H-498). It was used as such as long as a parsonage was needed, then sold, remodelled into an attractive home and is still lived in.
(In 1911 my grandfather Francis Marion Stewart after having served in the US Navy purchased what had been the parsonage for his parents, Simeon & Geneva (Ayers) Stewart. I have the original deed.  They lived in that home until their deaths (Simeon in 1925 and Geneva "Jennie" in 1940). My great grand uncle Leonidas Ayers is the one who remodeled it. In 2009 the home is in excellent condition and still lived in.)


BAPTIST
 
As for the handful of Baptists who lived in Paris, they had to drive the four or five miles to worship at the Coffee Creek Baptist Church, which meant fording Graham Creek before the bridge was built in 1870.

  Elder Thomas Hill, Sr., was the father of the Coffee Creek Baptist Church which was "constituted the first Saturday in May, 1822."
Elder Hill's biography, written by his son, Thomas Hill, Jr., appeared in the "Minutes of the Coffee Creek Baptist Association" for the year 1848, the year the elder Hill died. A brief resume based on this account follows:
  Thomis Hill Sr., was born in New Jersey on March 6, 1763. As a child, he moved with his parents to Virginia. He served three months in the American Revolution when but 19 years olf. He was converted, baptized and licensed to preach by the Baptist church in Virginia in 1788/89. He came to Indiana by way of Tennessee and Kentucky, arriving in Jennings County in March, 1817. He untied with the Graham Forks Baptist Church and served as its preacher until the Coffee Creek Baptist Church was orgainized "under his labors." He was its pastor more than 16 years, when he resigned because of old age.
  About that time, in 1839 when he was 76 years old, he moved into Paris, into the two-story brick house which stood on the southwest corner of Main and Main Cross streets. He lived there until his death in 1848.
  Quoting from his son's account, "...he was still faithful in attending meetings of his own beloved church, even when unable to walk without being supported and frequently at the close of a meeting he would lean upon his staff and exhort his brethern and sisters to faithfulness in duty."

  Allen Hill,II (Referred to as Allen Hill Jr.), son of Thomas Hill, Jr., and nephew of Allen Hill, Sr., was formally ordained on January 22, 1876. He was engaged in work for the Baptist cause briefly, then returned in 1878 to serve the Coffee Creek Baptist Church as preacher for several years, after which he became general agent for the Indiana State Convention and travelled throughout the state.

  Another bright light of the Coffee Creek Baptist Church was Joshua C. Tibbits who lived in Paris from 1874 to 1886. He was secretary of the Coffee Creek Baptist Association for many years and became famous for the "Minutes" of the Association which he wrote up. They were eventually published in book form and were treasured by all who were fortunate enough to own copies. 
(I have copy passed down from my great grandmother).
 
Mr. Tibbetts wrote of himself: "He was a strong writer, both upon relligous and political topics and a contributor to several Baptist papers, and many of his productions, secular, poetical and musical, deserve preservation."
  Joshua Tibbetts was born in Clermont County, Ohio, November 16, 1813. When he was about 15, he moved with his parents to Cincinnati where for about ten years he was engaged in printing, while at the same time he attended and was graduated from medical school, although he never "practiced" medicine.
  In 1841, he moved to Jefferson County, Indiana, where he united with the Coffee Creek Baptist Church. He was a vigorous worker in the Free Soil political party and assisted in founding Eleutherian College in Lancaster, Jefferson County, which was very progressive in that it accepted Negroes and women as students. The college was formally opened in 1849 by its founder, Thomas Cravens, a Baptist minister from Oberlin, Ohio.
  Tibbetts had a son, Samuel B., who was doing well in Minneapolis, and in June, 1886, because of ill health, Joshua and his family moved to Minneapolis where he later died. The Tibbetts family was a very close family, so when Joshua went to Minnesota, his other son, Milburn ("Mib") and his family went along.

  In 1886/87, the congregation of the Coffee Creek Baptist Church built a splendid brick edifice in Paris Crossing which is where they worship today.

DISCIPLES OF CHRIST
  In 1827, Alexander Campbell, who had been laboring for the Baptist cause in Virginia, began to feel that he was not in sympathy with the Baptists' Calvinistic view of predestination, so he began developing the principles of his own church in Virginia and West Virginia. He named it the Deciples of Christ, but it was more commonly known as the Reform Church (reformed from the Baptist).

  The seeds he was sowing in Virginia were beginning to reach southern Jennings County in the early 1830s. One of the most ardent workers in endeavoring to lure Baptists to join the new denominationin southern Jennings County was John B. New, son of Jethro New, of Vernon.

  At first their meetings were held in existing Baptist churches on Sunday afternoons, but when the Baptists finally realized what the true purpose of the meetings was, they padlocked their church doors after Sunday morning services. But, too late - the Coffee Creek Christian Church was organized in 1834 by John B. New with thirteen members who had defected from the Coffee Creek Baptist Church.

  Several from Paris, all men of high character, had been attending the Coffee Chreek Christian Church services and by 1840, expecting their town to be on the proposed Branch Line running from North Vernon to Louisville, they felt it was time to consider establishing a Christian Church in Paris. In 1842. the "trustees of the congregation of the Desciples of Christ" (Vaton? Smith, Joseph Hagans, Benjamin Randall, James Nelson, and Buel Eastman (H-57) bought Lot #56 on the east side of Second Street, near thenorth end of the street. The frame edifice they built was of great dignity and clearly not for the need of the moment, but for their projected future when the many people the railroad would attract would need a choice of worship.

  Within little more than ten years they had found that reality had not fulfilled their hope and for other reasons, such as there really was no need for their church to fill; the Methodists and two Coffee Creek churches were well able to satisfy whatever spritual requirements the community had. So, they wisely gave up and their worthy edifice was put to a use far more important than that of a purposeless church - a school!

  There are no statistics to prove, one way or the other, whether any, or how many, children were imbued, by the building presented, with respect for learning.

  When it was no longer needed as a school, the back room was removed and what was left became a dwelling, of sorts. While squalid in appearance, the wide front steps continued to march bravely and graciously up to the front door.

  By 1991, there was not a trace of it. In its place stood a modern cottage.

                                                                                  SCHOOL

 (Corrections in this section from Sharon Seaver who has done extensive research on the Lard/Laird family.)

Rebecca Laird was the first known schoolteacher in Paris. According to her son, Charles K. Lard (Laird), the family arrived at Madison in November, 1820. She subsequently taught three months (the length of a school term at that time) at Vernon, then in her own home one and one half miles northeast of Paris. The few children living in or near Paris could have attended that school. It was not uncommon for rural children to walk farther than that daily.
 
  In 1825, James Hammond, her brother,[correction - James was her son-n-law, the husband of her daughter Julia], bought Lot # 26, the second lot from the southwest corner of the main intersection in Paris (N-106). As Charles K. put it "She bought a house after separating from her husband, Samuel Laird." How many years she taught there is unknown: she would have been 53 years old in 1825.

  Rebecca Laird was born in Maine,[correction - she was born in 1772, Near New Bedford, MA, and baptized at Mattapoisett, Rochester, MA] in 1772, and died in 1855. At the time of the 1850 census, she was living with her brother,[correction - Julia and James Hammond, her daughter and son-in-law]James Hammond, near Paris. The two [correction - James and Rebecca] are buried in the first Coffee Creek Baptist graveyard.

  In January, 1838, the school trustees "of the north district" who were D.M. Hill, Lawrence Hollenbeck, and Buel Eastman, bought from Cobb & Willey a 33 X 40 plot at the South end of Second Street, on the north side of Water street, opposite Lot # 92 (E-221). This is were the children of Paris attended school for the next eighteen years.

  In 1850, the teacher must have been Charles Mobley, aged 29 years, residing at the Tavern according to the 1850 census.

  By 1856, the Deciples of Chirst in Paris had disbanded and their solid, frame two room building was available, so the school trustees "of Montgomery Township" who that year were Lemuel Wells, Allen Hill and Phillip Jones, bought the property (W-282).
Quite an improvement over the school, probably log, down on Water Street! This is where MDL attended school from 1871 to 1877. Seventy years later, she could remember what fun it was to swing out o a huge grapevine over the ravine back of the school.

  About the winter of 1873-4, her father was "building" a fence for his widowed sister at Mr. Zion, so MDL had to miss the winter term in Paris, but she took a couple of readers along to Mt. Zion, and attended the summer term in Paris, the following summer. "Aunt Lanie" Zenor (Magdaline "Aunt Lanie" Zenor born 1821 in Jefferson County-was born on the family farm just over the Jefferson County line on what is now hwy 250 going toward Lancaster, Magdaline Zenor died in 1905 in St. Clair County, Missouri, she was the prototype "old maid schoolteacher" as she never married) was her teacher that summer and she felt that possibly she learned more that summer than at any other time. Aunt Lanie gave awards of small presents, such as a dish or a picture, perhaps of Faith, Hope and Charity, for "head marks" (good work). MDL remembered receiving a dish or so and the picture of a woman's head, encircled with at wreath of cherries.

  She could remember standing with her spelling book beside Rile (Amos R.) Shepherd's desk; and a Mr. Holmes who had a large sheet of black paper on which he mounted various kinds of fowl; MDL especially remembered the guinea.

  We know that Eliza J. Dixon, daughter of Henry S. Dixon, taught a few years in the early 1870's in Paris. She was born in 1846 and was lame, probably from polio when a very young child. Her health may have been unstable; she died in 1900, when only 54 years old. Her photograph as a young adult shows a most handsome woman, poised, regular features and of a pleasing expression.

  The North Vernon papers never did differentiate between Paris and Paris Crossing when it came to schools. In the 1870's, new schools of higher education were springing up at Paris Crossing and at Coffee Creek, with impressive names like Select School of Coffee Creek.

  Perhaps the greatest educator of all was Professor Alpheus W. Blinn, from Cincinnati who was drawn to the area to teach in some of these "select" schools. James E. Lewis, who lived in the brick house on the southeast corner of the main intersection, often assisted him. It was through the Eleutherian College at Lancaster, Jefferson County, that he came to the area in 1882; he maintained a "high profile", was maybe a little flamboyant. In 1882, he bought Lots #11, #12 and #13 in Paris and may have maintained a home there, but it was the custom for the teacher to board with a family near his school during the winter months. In the winter of 1886 he was living with the Oliver Shepherd family near Paris Crossing. The last newspaper reference to his teaching in the vicinity was the one of September 23, 1886. The paper of January 17, 1887, states that he had gone to Philadelphia to teach.
  However, he made the "grand tour" in the summer (June to September), 1886. He sent back articles for the newspaper written along the way, sort of a diary; the series was called "Walks and Talks by the Way", The first article was entitled, "Cincinnati to Colorado".
  When he returned at the end of September, the North Vernon newspaper reported, "Prof. Blinn who has been in Colorado for some months will return to this city this week and will canvass for the sale of a book entitled "My Story of the War" by Mary A. Livermore, a former hospital and field nurse. It is a fine book and we predict large sales here."
  Prof. Blinn sold his lots in Paris in 1889 and we see his name mentioned no more. He was certainly a scholar of sorts and the community was certainly better for having been exposed to his erudition for the several years. 

  
                                                                                DOCTORS

  The topographical situation of Paris provided a healthful atmosphere in which its citizens lived. Although they were probably not aware of it, its high elevation was beneficial to their health and longvity. The town is situated on a high platau that falls sharply to draining streams: Neil's Creek on the east and south; Graham Creek on the north and west. On the north this high plateau extends northward two or three miles until the foad falls sharply to the bed of Graham Creek at the Paris Ford, east of Commiskey.

  Much of the population of southern Indiana lived under near-miasmatic conditions; the land low-lying, poorly drained and heavily forested. The heavy "night air" was a reality.

  Soon after Indiana was opened to settlers, health conditions probably slowed immigration. The Indiana Magazine of History of June 1956 explains that the year 1822 was the "year of terrible sickness when Governor Jonathan Jennings set aside a day for prayer and fasting because of the statewide illness."

                                                                  DR. HEZEKIAH EASTMAN 

  On October 30, 1830, Dr. Hezekiah Eastman bought three lots in Paris. He had come first to Vernon, where in 1827 he had bought a lot from Col. John Vawter. But in 1830, he chose Paris as his place of residence. 
  Lot #7, south of the Tavern lot, was most desirable, but it had a flaw described in the deed book entry of September 1828 (A-492) as follows: "...14 feet of pond running bak almost 16 feet out of the northwest corner." Dr. Eastman viewed the rejected corner with interest. The location was the best; the 16 X 20 corner composed of pond would be the right size for an office building. So, he bought the 16 X 20 corner (B-240), had it filled in some (it may not have been a pond, but a depression where the water stood most of the time), and had his 15 X 20 office room erected thereon. This had been accomplished before May 7, 1831. the date of the deed book entry covering the purchase: "16 feet front, 20 feet back, including the whole of the office occupied by Hezrkiah Eastman."
  On November 1, 1834, Dr. Eastman sold this 16 X 20 corner, with building, to Micajah Lyon and Jacob Kysar, to be used as a "grocery room". (C-312)  This date may mark the end of Dr. Eastman's medical practice in Paris, when he turned to business and real estate. He owned the Tavern from 1831 - 1834.
  Two of his children are mentioned: Hezekiah, Jr., and Celo, who was deceased by 1846. However, Celo had two sons, Celo and Eberly. Eberly fought in the Civil War and is buried in the Paris graveyard. This indicates that Eberly had married and remained in the area until the time of the War.
  Dr. Eastman died between August 1 and September 23, 1846; his wife Elizabeth, survived him. (The following information is from the research of Judi Mills Boie--Dr. Hezekiah Eastman Jr. was the son of Rev. Hezekiah Eastman Sr. and Hannah Porter, he was born about 1782 in Marshall, either New York or Vermont. He was married twice his first wife was named Mary and his second wife was named Elizabeth. He was a Surgeon in the War of 1812 and was captured at the Battle of Queenstown Heights, then exchanged as a prisoner of war. He had two children with Mary-Buel Eastman and Edward Darwin Eastman, both of whom died in Texas. With Elizabeth he had two children Diantha and Dr. Celo Eastman.

  As for Dr. Eastmans office on the lot corner, it exchanged hands several times as a unit until 1849, when it was absorbed in Lot 7, making a full-sized lot again.

                                                                   DR. WALTER B. GOODHUE

  Dr. Walter B. Goodhue had come to Paris close on the heels of Dr. Eastman; he bought Lot 27 in September 1832 (D-2). He lived on this lot for four years and may have built the brick house still standing on the lot.
  Dr. Goodhue was born in New Hampshire in 1803; his wife, Ester, was born in Kentucky in 1810: which makes it appear he married after leaving New England.
  In 1834, Dr. Goodhue felt he need more space, so he bought one square acre adjoining lot #27 on the west (E-453). This land had never been laid out so it had not lot number, it was simply known as the "Goodhue Property". When Dr. Goodhue sold it to Brannock Phillips in 1842 (H-76). It became henceforth the "Phillips Property".
  Being better educated than most early rural settlers, Dr. Goodhue was named to various committees and commissions; he served on these while giving diligent attention to the health needs of the community. He was widely regarded as a man of integrity and judgment.
  Around 1841, John Cobb had laid out the Cobb Addition, ten lots west of Paris on the south side of the Brownstown Road. The land gradually rose going west until Lot #150 which was the highest spot. On this lot around 1850. Dr. Goodhue built his new two-story, commodious, frame house. In a day of craftsmen, the house had a beautifully paneled double front door.
  Dr. Goodhue did not enjoy his new home long. In 1852, he sold it to William Deputy and soon thereafter went to Iowa to live with a son or daughter.
  However, he left at least one descendant in Jennings County. There was a W.S. Goodhue, who was the manager in 1889 of a creamery that Deputy & Hudson of Paris Crossing set up at Hardensburgh.

                                                                  DR. BENJAMIN B. RUSSELL

  Just about the time Dr. Goodhue was leaving, Dr. Benjamin B. Russell came to Paris. Many years later, he said he came to Paris around 1845.
  Here are some facts of his life from biographical material he gave the Vernon Banner: He was born in Fayette County, Kentucky, on February 22, 1810. He spent his early boyhood in Clark County, Indiana; then returned to Westport Kentucky. He reveived his medical education under D.E.C. Drane of Newcastle, Kentucky. He took his first Course of Lectures at the University of Louisville; the Second Course at St. Louis, where he graduated.
  He bought Lot # 76, on the north edge of Paris, in January 1850 (O-327). On this lot, he built his unique plaster house. A durable plaster had been developed, being mixed with horse hair. This was no doubt the precursor of the stucco house of the early 1990's. However, the plaster did not shell off as the stucco was inclined to do. In any case, Dr. Russell's new house was a completely new concept and furnished the people of Jennings County with a new experience in architecture. (Local legend has it that the house was built in the style it is because Dr. Russell's wife was a southern lady and he did it to please her. This is another home that is still standing in Paris and it and its grounds are beautiful to this day.)
  In 1852, Dr. Russell bought a 30-foot wide strip along the west end of Lot #27, 30 X 36 (P-575). This was large enough for a modest office, a shelter for buggy and horse in bad weather, and it provided grass for the horse to nibble in the meantime. Dr. Russell sold this strip four years later, in 1856; maybe he had decided he could operate just as well from his home. In subsequent years, this property seemed to be favored by druggists and doctors; Dr. James B. Hudson bought it in 1885 (O-267), maybe about the time he launched on his medical career, and he owned it four years.
  Dr. Russell's sister, Ellen or Ella C., who married William Cave as his second wife in 1842, lived in Paris at the same time until her death in 1869, aged 52 years. William Cave died in 1882, aged 80 years; both are buried in the Paris graveyard. (Tombstone transcriptions-Ella G. Cave, wife of William G., died November 16, 1869, 52 yrs 20 days-Wm. G. Cave died January 15, 1882 aged 82 yrs 10 mths 21 days. Again note a difference between this booklet having her middle initial as C. and tombstone being seen as a G. and William being either 80 or 82.)
  Dr. Russell was a man of many talents; he didn't limit himself to taking care of the aches and pains of the community. He even lectured in surrounding towns on such worthy topics as temperance.

                                                                       DR. ANSEL GERRISH

  Dr. Ansel Gerrish was born in Maine in 1804 and was in Montgomery Township, Jennings County, in 1850 according to the census of that year. While he did not own property in Paris, he no doubt lived near enough to be considered one of the town's doctors.
  According to the 1850 census, Dr. Gerrish had a son, James W.F., 19 born in Maine, carpenter, his wife Maria, 18, born in Pennsylvania, and a six-month old infant. So Ansel and Phoebe Gerrish would not have started their westward treck until after 1831.
  James W.F. had two infants buried in the Willey family graveyard; one died in 1851 amd tje ptjer om 1853. This indicates that the Gerrishes may have lived east of Paris and were friends and neighbors of the Willeys.
  In 1856, Dr. Gerrish bought lots #17 and #100 in Paris (W-341), and blacksmith lots #30N, #315, #42. and #43M (V-367), the latter mabe as a nudge to James W.F. to think seriously about supporting a young family.
  Dr. Ansel Gerrish died between 1857 and 1864. By 1867, his wife Phoebe, had sold their Paris property, and she and James W.F. were residents of Seymour, then a town 15 years old. James W.F. fell into his rightful niche in Seymour, real estate development.
  One of James W.F.'s sons was Millard F., a physician, who received some good appointments from the mayor of the young town.
  But what Millard and his wife Violet Gerrish are really remembered for: They were leaders of the organizational movement that established the First Church of the Nazarene in Seymour with a faction from the First Methodist Church. The cornerstone of the Nazarene Church was laid in 1905.

                                                                 DR. JAMES B. HUDSON

  Dr. James B. Hudson and Dr. James M. Lefebre were about the same age, started their medical practice at about the same time, and both grew up in the vicinity of Paris.
  James B. Hudson was born around 1837, the son of Absolom and Mary Fowler Hudson, the brother of Silas M. It appears he started his medical practice about 1865, when he would have been about 28 years old. In this year he bought several pieces of property that indicate they were bought for business reasons. First, he purchased Dr. Russell's office property on the west end of lot #27, and secondly he bought three lots, #24, #25 and #26 on Main Street. He probably is the doctor who built the quaint one-room office in front of his residence on lot #26. He no doubt thought this would be a more convenient arrangement than using Dr. Russell's office on the west end lot #27.  He sold Dr. Russell's office which he had bought in 1865, in 1869.
  He must have been preparing to leave Paris, because in 1869 he sold the three lots, #24, #25, and #26, with office, to Dr. James M. Lefebre. This no doubt marks the beginning of Dr. Lefebre's practice in Paris.
  In 1870, Dr. Hudson's wife Ketturah, 28 years old, died and is buried in the Coffee Creek Christian Cemetery. He then moved permanently to Columbus, Bartholomew County, and is probably buried there.

                                                                 DR. JAMES LEFEBRE

  Dr. Lefebre was born around 1832 and entered the practice of medicine about 1869, when he was 37 years old. In 1869 he bought the three lots in Paris, #24, #25 and #26, with the doctor's office, from Dr. James B. Hudson. He continued to live on this lot until 1881 when he purchased the brick house immediately south of his home from William Deputy (22-357).
  In 1886, his wife, Rebecca, fell on ice in February and broke her leg. This can have a destablizing impact on a family. In 1888, Dr. Lefebre sold his Paris residence and showed great indecision as to where he wanted to locate: he went to Commiskey, then Lexington, Scott County, then to the town of Lovett which was on the railroad Branch Line, and he may have remained there the rest of his life. (in 1882 one of the witnesses of the will of my 3rd great grandmother Sarah Ann (Ward) Ayers was John Lefebre).      
  The Lefebres are remembered with respect and perhaps the best-remembered of his children was Cynthia S., who taught school for many years.



                
                                                                                DENTISTS

  Dental work in the 1800s consisted mostly of tooth extraction which a physician could take care of.
  
  At the time of the 1850 census, we noted that an itinerant dentist was staying at the Tavern. With the coming of the railroad, however, the people of Jennings County were not restricted to the local domaain; many went as far as Cincinnati for special reasons.

  In the 1880s, Paris had her own dentist in the person of John C. Cave. He would have been 25 in 1880.
  On February 9, 1876, he married Ora Tibbits, daughter of Joshua Tibbits who lived east of Paris. MDL remembered that Dr. Cave, the dentist, had his office in the Tibbets' residence.
  The Caves were English, Stephen Cave was the patriarch of the family who emigrated from England. The immigration records outline his journey to the United States: He was from the County of Leichester, Parish of Sevenford, England, sailed from Liverpool in April of 1832 and started making his way westward. He finally arrived in Paris and was naturalized on July 12, 1841. Witnesses for his naturalization were William B. Hagins, a lawyer in Vernon but with Paris connections, and William Cave, who had already located in Paris. 
                                        

                                                                           MERCHANTS
        It seemed that almost everyone at some time or other wanted to try his hand at store-keeping for short periods

JAMES S. SMYTH
    James S. Smyth, who came to Paris as a blacksmith in 1826, says that he was "engaged in the blacksmith business for a few years, then became a merchant".  Trying to figure out the year he became a merchant depends on the interpretation of  " a few years". Suffice it to say he had become a merchant in Paris by the 1850s and was in the merchandising business there long enough to be influential in setting a standard for other merchants to follow. The quality of life in Paris must have been better because of the quality of merchandise he made available, and the same merchandise, carefully chosen, enabled the housewives to develop a sense of taste and discrimination.
  By 1859, he had left Paris, settled in Vernon, and in partnership with a Mr. McClelland, had established a grocery store. He was also active in the community affairs of Vernon:  He was assistant assessor, a justice of the Peace, and the postmaster, and had been elected to offices in the Masonic Lodge.
  His sons, Albert J. and John A., lived in Vernon, too. Both had served in the Civil War, and John A. had married a young lady named Leora E.; it appears Albert J. had not married. John A. died November 11, 1869 when he was 32 years old.
  Albert J. was pursuing his occupation of saddler and in 1867 at the county fair won awards for the best harness and the best bridles (two kinds). He also was collector of internal revenue for that county and an agent for the Phoenix Insurance Company. 1867 was a good year for Albert J. In that year, he was elected mayor of Vernon, succeeding William B. Hagins, who also had Paris connections.
  In October 1867 the following announcement appeared in the Vernon Banner:  "...the grocery store owned by Smyth & McClelland has changed hands. The store will continue to sell under the company name of Smyth & Smyth, Albert Smyth having purchased McClelland's interest...The post office will continue in the building."
  Albert J. died May 12, 1873, aged 33 years.  He and John A. are buried in the Vernon cemetery. They have similar tombstones and there is space for a grave between their graves, as though it might be reserved for a later burial. James S. Smyth's obituary states that his burial was in the Vernon cemetery, but he has no stone here or elsewhere in the cemetery.
  When John A. Smyth was buried, it appears that his survivors assumed his young widow would remarry, perhaps raise a family, and be buried beside her second husband. But John A. may have had at least one child surviving him. This announcement appeared in the North Vernon newspaper of May 12, 1881: Married by W.W. Snider of Madison, Dr. Albert Smyth to Miss Norrie Robinson (Robertson), both of this place (Dupont)...Dr. Smyth had bought Dr. Cave's property and will take possession at once."
  James S. Smyth died February 9, 1886, 87 years old, soon after moving to North Vernon. The writer of his obituary appearing in the "Madison Herald" of February 17, 1886, laments the "passing of the ancient greatness of old Paris...Mr. Smyth was a merchant in that place in the early days. He had for competitors in business Mr. Dennis Willey, Mr. Silas Stribling of this city (Madison), Messrs. Williamson and Ellison Dixon, and Milton Hill...At the same time, Mr. C.K. Lard, now of North Madison, also engaged in the mercantile business and hog packing...The parties named did an enormous business and all of them became well-off. There were no railroads then, yet these gentlemen went to New York and Philadelphia after their merchandise...they did not buy from drummers, but went there in person to lay in their stock. (Also see: James S. Smyth, Blacksmith)

D. M. HILL
  Daniel Milton Hill, usually referred to by his initials only, was in command of the best business corner in town, lot # 10. The town pump was also on this corner, a focal point in its own right. The store-room was flush with the street on the north and west sides; on the south a house was attached in which the storekeeper resided. In 1839, two years after Hill bought the lot, he sold a 19 X 33 plot in the center of the lot (63 feet from the northwest corner of the lot) to Simeon Robertson (F-279) on which Robinson built a stone building, possibly for good, tight storage. (Simeon Robertson was one of three husbands of Elizabeth Osborn the other two were 1st - Leven Malcomb and after the death of Simeon Robertson she married Henry W. Dixon son of Henry S. & Alcy Dixon) Williamson Dixon bought this 19 X 30 or 33 plot in 1848 and owned it until 1882 when it passed into the hands of his son, Harman Dixon.
  D.M. was the son of the Elder Thomas Hill, Sr., founder of the Coffee Creek Baptist Church. He was born December 31, 1805, in Kentucky, in the course of his parent's migration from Virginia to Indiana. On April 22, 1824, he married Jane Dixon, born in Kentucky on September 29, 1801, the daughter of Henry Dixon and sister of Williamson and Ellison Dixon. Jane died in 1874 (Sept 12, 1874  72 yrs 11mo 13 days) and D.M. in 1883 (b. Dec. 31, 1805 d. Aug. 13, 1883);  both are buried in the Dixon section of the Paris graveyard.
  They were the parents of James A., born in 1825 or 1827, who eventually took over the operation of the store, although the 1850 Census lists him as a saddler. The 1850 Census also lists two sons, William B., 21 years old in 1850, and Ellison C., 15, both of whom clerked in the store. The youngest child was a daughter, Martha Ann, who married Alonzo Gaddy 
(Alonzo Gaddy was the son of Benjamin S. Gaddy and Sarah Cobb).
  
D.M. was an associate judge in 1837 when he was around 31 years old. It can be assumed he was a good businessman and did a brisk business. In 1847, D. M. bought some land from his father, west of Paris, on the north side of the Brownstown Road. This is where he lived when his son, James A., had taken over management of the store and was in the house attached to the store. D.M. had turned his attention to politics and community affairs; he played the role of spokesman or representative of the town whenever the occasion arose.
  He appears not to have shrunk from being "different" (or he could have enjoyed it?), such as being a Democrat in a Republican stronghold, or a Baptist among Methodists.

WILLIAM A. JONES
  "Bill Jones' store" was on the east end of lot #10, the same lot as D.M. Hill's. D.M. Hill owned the building and may have owned the store and Bill was just the manager. But to the citizens of Paris, it was Bill's store. The store with post office in the rear was on the first floor of the building and the Odd Fellows (Knights Templar) hall was on the second floor.
   Incidentally, Bill Jones was the brother-in-law of James A. Hill. Bill's sister, Sarah Jones, born in 1838, had married James A. Hill, born in 1825 or 1827. She died in 1872 when only 34 years old, and there is no evidence he remarried.
   William A. Jones was born in 1835/36, the oldest child of Phillip and Harriet Atwood Jones, who owned the Tavern after 1855. He lived at the south end of Main Street, west side, lots #78, #79, and #80.
(William A. Jones was married to Nancy "Nan" Sampson born in 1834 and the daughter of Ephraim & Martha Sampson). 
 
Bill was a model citizen; friendly, accommodating in his business and a very active worker in the Methodist Church. But, at home, his wife Nan, because of her obesity couldn't move around, just sat, and had to have help, especially with food preparation. MDL thought the food was not removed from the table after meals. But not to worry, in those days, elderly widows actually didn't have enough to eat. So they would drop in for a chat with Nan, and at the same time help themselves to a bite or two from the remains on the table. MDL remembers Granny Lark who lived on the east side of the street, pipe in mouth, meandering across the street every day shortly after noon. Someone said that Bill or Nan said "the neighbors ate them out of house and home."
  So, in 1880, Bill Jones moved his family to Bedford. The logical move would have been northward: Vernon and North Vernon, Columbus, or Greensburg, or Indianapolis. Someone must have had something definite for Bill at Bedford.
  Bill's sister Martha (Matt), had married a man named Jimmy Cologne, who had come to Paris in the late 1860's. He sold organs and roomed at the Tavern. MDL remembered that he wore half-moon earrings and sang in a loud, guavering voice at church services. A newspaper item of 1886 mentions that "Jimmy Cologne, of Bedford, spent Sunday with relatives in Paris." Maybe he and Matt were established in Bedford before 1880 and convinced Bill Jones that was the place to settle.
  Bill Jones' sister, Ruth, a seamstress, lived with them in Bedford. She had epilepsy and in the 1920s or 1930s, MDL saw in The Indianapolis Star that she'd been the victim of a traffic accident.
  Also living in Bedford was Ben Wykoff. The Vernon Banner of February 26, 1890, stated Ben Wykoff of Bedford was visiting his parents in Paris.
  When Bill Jones left Paris for Bedford in 1880, the move was not from friends to strangers.
  
  The newspaper article on a trip to Paris in 1870, mentions another merchant: "T. M. Dixon's is filled with good, clean stock and customers will find anything they want including a large assortment of Queensware". (Thomas M. Dixon was born about 1846 in Paris, Indiana, he married in 1869 Mary Elizabeth "Mollie" Lard/Laird, daughter of Benjamin Franklin Lard/Laird and Elizabeth Wells).
  
 
                                                                                  TANYARD

  Leather was very "big" in pioneer days: saddles, horse-collars and harness, upholstery for buggies and carriages, as well as shoes for humans.

  The surrounding farms provided plenty of hides, but a tanyard in the community would be a great convenience and preclude the necessity of having to go as far away as Vernon or Madison.

  The first mention of the Paris tanyard is dated January 1834, Jefferson County Deed Book I, page 152, and Jennings County Deed Book C, page 183. In both, the tanyard is described as "an acre, it being part of the half-section 4, Town 4, Range 8 east, deeded to Robert M. Smith...a noted spring".

  A tanyard requires plenty of water. It is repugnant to think of the clear, pure water of a "noted spring" in conjunction with an odoriferous, messy tanyard.

  Dennis Willey owned the farm on which the tanyard was located during most of the time it was in use, but maybe things changed when Willey sold the form to Williamson Dixon in 1859; mabe Dixon didn't want to be bothered with it.
 
  The names connected with the operation of the tanyard are Samuel Weir, Edward Zenor, Abraham Herring, and especially the Rawlings-Eleazer, Hill, and Henry.


                                                                         SADDLERS OF PARIS

  The Striblings, Uriah B. and Silas M., were always agressive and enterprising businessmen. In 1846, when Uriah B. was only 21 years old, he bought (K-241) the sourthwest corner of James S. Smyth's yard, Lot # 28, and established a saddlery thereon. He had just married, in October 1845, Hester Ann Cobb, only 15 years old.
(Uriah and Silas Stribling were the sons of Thomas Tibbets Stribling & Sarah Vawter. Hester Ann is believed to have been the daughter of John Cobb & Maria Malcomb).

  
The 825-square-foot area was not quite sufficient because the next few times this corner plot changed ownership, the following stipulation appeared on the indenture:"...and the use of six square feet of ground on said lot #28...for the use of a privy forever".

  Within four years, 1850 Census, Stribling was employing four saddlers, which would indicate a thriving business. They were William Winchester, 32; James Wilson 18; William Stout, 22; and John L. (Levin) Malcomb, harnessmaker, 16.

  Stribling operated this saddlery for nine years, selling out in 1855 (T-435).

  Albert J. Smyth, son of James S. Smyth, was born in 1840 and grew from about 6 years old to 15 years old in the nine years the saddlery was operating on the corner of his home yard. As a child he no doubt hung around out of boredom or curiosity or just to talk to the men; and he may have done some chores, and may have even worked as a saddler before it closed. Anyway, he became a saddler and pursued that occupation in Vernon as an adult. He obviously was very proficient because at the Jennings County Fair, in 1867, he received first prize for the best double-harness; also first prize for two bridles.

  Charles M. Mobley, teacher/saddler, who was living at the Tavern in 1850, may have helped out at the Stribling saddlery.
  
  At the same time, beginning in 1840, six years before Stribling, and continuing many years until old age or ill health forced him to quit. George W. Bantz was operating a saddlery on lot #4. Deed book entry (5-525) reveals that the middle initial stands for "Wetzel"

  There was another individual named George W. Bantz living in Vernon and North Vernon at the time George Wetzel Bantz was living in Paris. He was two years older than George Wetzel Bantz was still living in 1880, while George Wetzel Bantz had died in 1878. The George W. Bantz of Vernon was one of the original county commissioners in 1817 and a potrait of him hangs in the second-floor corridor of the Courthouse at Vernon. There is also Bantz building in North Vernon at the intersection of Fifth and Buckeye streets, where Highway 50 years right, before proceeding east. The letters in the name are large and in relief - easily discernible.

  George Wetzel Bantz was born in Virginia in 1794, and was buying real estate in Madison as early as 1818 and he was advertising a saddlery on Main Cross Street, in Madison as early as 1826. The Madison newspaper (DAR compilation) yields quite a few interesting items about his early life there:

     May 3, 1825 - "Mrs. Rhoda Bantz, consort of George W. Bantz, died." This would have been the mother of William K. Bantz, who was born in 1819, and maybe Sarah Bantz, wife of Dr. J. W. Kyle, born in 1822, and buried on William K.'s plot in the Vernon cemetery."

     September 7, 1826 - "Married in Gallatin County, Kentucky, on the 29th ult...George W. Bantz of this place to Grace George of the former place, by Joseph Oglesby".

George is just as Irish a surname as, say, McCulihy, and maybe Gracie had an Irish temperament.

     July 18, 1834 - "Grace Bantz has left her husband, G. W. Bantz." They obviously were soon reconciled and she remained his faithful companion throughout his Paris years until her death in 1872.

    G. W. Bantz had had to know about the new town less than twenty miles northwest; and maybe someone had just mentioned that they had no saddler. G.W. did not act hastily. In 1836, he sent his 17-year-old son William K. to Paris to find out how things really were. William K. had become a saddler himself, so he bought a strip of lot #4 (D-308) and set up shop. His report must have been good, because in January 1840. George Wetzel himself moved to Paris, buying one-quarter acre on the east side of the Vernon road, just north of town. He bought additional strips of land in 1846 (L-92) and 1848 (K-168)until he owned an area of 15,510 square feet or between one-third and one-half acre. This was his home until his death; it was within easy walking distance from the stores in the center of town and was very near his saddlery on lot #4.

  According to the 1850 census, he was employing three men in his saddlery: his two sons, Thomas A., 21, and John M., 17, and William A. Robinson, 17.

  He owned other lots in Paris and the number of years he owned them might indicate the steadiness of his character. He owned lot #97 for 16 years, 1841 (G-422) to 1857 (U-481) lots #40 and #41 for 20 years, 1845 (J-279) to 1865 (2-335)lot #74 for 36 years, 1843 (H-215) to 1879, sold by his son after his death (20-12); and lot # 39 for 19 years, 1846 (K-170) to 1865 (2-225).

  There was a Bantz still making horse collars in Paris, in 1870, according to the newspaper account.

  As to William K. who had come to Paris in 1836, he married Caroline Bullock of a very prominent Vernon family in 1845. The young couple lived in Paris a few years on North Second Street, a few lots south of his parents' home. Their first child Sarah, was born in 1846, while they lived in Paris, but by 1850, they were living in Vernon, where Caroline was surrounded by family and friends she grew up with. They also had a son James A., born in 1848.

William K. served in the Civil War.

In 1867, both Caroline and Sarah succumbed to the dread disease, consumption dying within four months of each other.

  In 1876, William K. married Celia Kyle of Hanover and resided there until his death in 1886; his burial was in the Vernon cemetery.

  John Milton Bantz, born in 1833, was 15 years younger than William K. and was also a saddler. In 1855, he had married Mary E. Dixon, daughter of the one-time Sheriff Samuel Dixon and sister of the well-known politician, Lincoln Dixon. She died in 1856 when 23 years old. John M. then left Paris, but when he was back in 1878, disposing of his father's property, he was of "Washington County", (Salem).
BLACKSMITHS OF PARIS
  James S. Smyth came to Paris as a blacksmith in 1826. In 1827, he bought the large corner lot #28 (A-450) which was just over 9,914 square feet in area as compared to the 8,712 square feet of the 66 X 132 lot. This would give him space for his residence and smithy. The obviously logical place for his smithy was the southwest corner of the lot, opening on Main Cross Street, which he sold in 1846 to Uriah B. Stribling for a saddlery. Did the sale of this corner in 1846 mark Smyth's change of career from blacksmith to merchant?
(Also see James S. Smyth, Merchant).
  Smyth was born in Wayne County, Virginia, on July 24, 1799. He states that he was in Madison, Indiana, by 1816. In 1822, he married Elizabeth Dinwiddie, daughter of Archibald Dinwiddie who entered land in Jefferson County in 1812. Elizabeth's sister Margaret Dinwiddie married Ellison Dixon in 1834, and in the same year another sister, Jane, married Charles K. Lard/Laird.
  Elizabeth and James S. were the parents of five children: Mary E., born in 1829, who married Mr. Hayes and died in 1855 when but 26 years old; Helena, born in 1831, married James H. Wilson, spent all her life in the Paris vicinity and ddied in 1875; Benjamin T., born in 1834, and lived his adult life in Bartholomew County; John A., born in 1837, resided in Vernon and died in 1869; and Albert J., born in 1840 and died in 1873.
    Elizabeth died in 1845 amd was buried in the Paris graveyard. By 1859, James S. had established himself as a grocer in Vernon

  The late 1840's saw a spate of Welsh blacksmiths descend on Paris. In 1849, Daniel Davis from Wales bought part of Lot #45 (N-238). He evidently owned and operated a smithy on this partial lot until he sold it; working in his smithy was Hugh Jones also born in Wales.

  In 1847 a family of Welsh blacksmiths named Davis, consisting of Joseph, age 27 years: Evan 24; Edward, 19; John, 15; and Thomas 12, bought lots #32, #33 and part of Lot #31 (L-14, M-114, O-130). They continued here for ten years. Also working in their smithy was John Jacobs, born in New York in 1815, who first had bought a lot in Paris in 1839 (E-304). When Joseph Davis sold the lots in 1865, they were already established in Wisconsin.
  
  In 1865, Thomas F. Wykoff bought the Davis blacksmith lots (18-208) and evidently had a blacksmith operation there for 13 years. He sold his business in 1878 to German born William Kohle who lived east of Paris. Kohle died soon thereafter but his widow Christena, owned the property until 1889.

  Wykoff had a son Patrick "Pad", who was indeed a free spirit. He had married Clara Shilledeay, MDL's cousin, the daughter of Amanda Deputy and John Simpson Shilledeay. Pad "hosted" a dance New Year's 1884 which was a shocking event because the churches looked with such disfavor on dancing. According to the newspapers "The young and some of the old folks enjoyed a nice dance at the residence of Pad Wykoff in Old Town last Wednesday evening." In 1887 Pad and his family moved to Pendleton Indiana probably in connection with employment at the penetentiary there, security or maintenance.

  Eli Higgins, born in Massachusetts in 1787, and listed as blacksmith, was the first of that colorful family to arrive in Paris. Milo, his son had been born in Ohio in 1828 on the way westward.

  By 1849 Eli had arrived in Paris and had bought Lot #17. In no time at all, in a matter of weeks or a month or so, Milo had married Jane Sampson in 1849. Although Milo and Jane were soon living in Brewersville, Sand Creek Township, they kept in close touch with Paris: Milo often held an elective office in the Paris Masonic Lodge, both Jane and Milo, and their son Earl and his wife are buried in the Coffee Creek Baptist Cemetery:  Milo died in 1911 and Jane in 1913. (Earl Higgins wife mentioned above was Emma Vincent, she lived in what had originally been the home of Ephraim Harlan when I was a little girl).

  John L. Files was a well known wagon-maker operating in the North Vernon area in the late 1860s. At the County Fair in 1867, he won first prizes for the best wagon and the best spring wagon. He was also expert in using the newspaper for free advertising. Informing potential customers through its columns where he would be operating in the upcoming season, often adding a sly offer to make the reader a wagon "made on the best mechanical principles". After Paris, he was in Hanover in 1886 and Paris Crossing in 1889.

  A similar partnership was formed by Lewis Antle of Lancaster, Jefferson County, and Matthias Terwillegar, probably from Madison. A newspaper of 1876 states that "Mr. Antle of Lancaster had moved his wagon shop to Paris where he and Mr. Terwillegar will run the blacksmith and the wagon shop.

  The Terwillegars purchased Lot # 13, across the street from the house where MDL lived, in 1877 (18-332) and the north halves of Lots #106 and #107 (20-378) for business. They had a widowed daughter, addie who died in 1881 when but 21 years old. She was buried in the Paris graveyard. Addie played the organ and MDL remembed how the family gathered around the home organ on Sunday mornings before church and how they sang!

  The young Terwillegars were rapidly assimilated in the Paris citizenry. Anson Terwillegar marred Olive Condry on January 19, 1876; they lived in Indianapolis. Cora Ellen Terwillegar married Thaddeus Dixon, son of Ellizon Dixon, on September 26, 1876.

  Other wagon-makers in Paris were:  Hiram Barnes who was living in Iowa in 1859 near his father-in-lae Brannock Phillips; Simeon Hendricks, 1866-1871; and Daniel Ray.


                                                                              UNDERTAKERS

  The business of providing funeral/burial service was just emerging and evolving in the 1800s. It was well into the 1900s that, with the introduction of embalming and expanded service, it became a lucrative business.

  In the early days when the population was sparse, the amount of funeral business depended on the number of deaths and there were just not that many of those in a small rural community to warrant full-time involvement, the necessity for having another source of income in order to provide for a family. Many will remember when the funeral home was often in conjunction with a furniture store, and the "funeral parlor" and the furniture store were under one roof.

  The main duties of the funeral director were the "laying out" of the corpse and providing an attractive coffin. The coffin was a wooden box which could be obtained from any chairmaker or cabinetmaker; it was then "decorated" (lined) often by the undertaker's wife. The funeral director would have had to stock material suitable for this purpose. MDL remembers that as a child in the early 1870s. when she would see Harriet (Mrs. Joseph) Ayers hurrying down the street from her house, scissors swinging from her belt, she knew someone had just died.

  In later years, the funeral director would also have had to provide a well-kept hearse and a horse of fairly good appearance to transport the coffin from the church of home to the graveyard. The appearance of hearse and horse added greatly to the dignity and solemnity of the occasion.

  Thomas Rowland was to become the town's first "undertaker". At a very early age. In 1830, he had bought Lot #88 near the south end of Main Street where he lived for forty years, 1830 to 1870 (H-327, Jefferson County). In 1834, he purchased Lots #87, and #86, adjoining on the north.
    These three lots would have given him space for the bare essentials for living in that day: a building for his occupation of cabinetmaking (according to the 1850 census); a barn for a horse and vehicle, grain storage, etc., garden space for plenty of potatoes and vegetables, especially green beans; an apple tree or two, and hopefully a cherry tree; shelter for a cow, pigs and a chicken pen; in short, space for his occupation, transportation, and food.
    His first wife, Isabelle, had died before March 1, 1856, and he had married Matilda. He and Isabelle were the parents of Samantha (Mrs. Lewis Blake): Isaac Holman, born in 1836; and Malintha (Mrs. Christie Calhoun), born in 1844; and maybe Arvilla, who died young and is buried on their plot in the original Paris graveyard.
    In 1852, Thomas purchased a 20 X 60 plot on lot #27, west of the brick house (W-207). This probably marks his entry into the funeral-burial business. In 1867, he bought a larger plot, the notheast corner of the Phillips Property, approximately 31 X 128 (8-508).
   Rowland evidently kept up with the trends of the then-developing funeral-burial business and served the community with style and quality for which they bestowed upon him their highest regard. Considering the financial return for the service, the funeral director was in a sense extending the community a courtesy and he did not take his responsibility lightly. It appears that Rowland wanted to retire (his health may have been a factor), but felt he could not leave until he had found a successor. This was accomplished in 1870 when he turned his duties over to Joseph Ayers.
  When Thomas Rowland died in 1878, he was living on "two acres near North Vernon"
   Isaac Holman Rowland, son of Thomas and Isabelle Rowland, was born in 1836 and died in 1905, spent his entire life in Paris, and being a very solid citizen became almost an institution. He married Eliza Jane Shillideay. He served in the Civil War, in enlisting in 1861, being discharged in 1865.
    Isaac H. was a carpenter, and a North Vernon paper in 1886 states he and his son were doing carpenter work on Eli Wells' house, the stately brick house just west of Commiskey.
   A given name like "Isaac Holman" suggests he may have been named for an individual, a relative or ancestor. There were two Holmans, Moses and Isaac, buying land from the government in Jackson County in the very early days. Isaac Holman bought land in 1813, 1822, and 1827, as recorded in the Jackson County Tract Book.
  Isaac Holman and Eliza Jane Rowland are buried in the original graveyard, although they died after 1900; the plot where they are buried also has the graves of two children, Arvilla and Celestine, with no dates.

  Joseph Ayers, who bought Thomas Rowland's residential and business property in 1870 had never lived in the town, but he had been around and was aquainted with the citizens. In 1857, he had bought three well-known plots just north of town on the Vernon road; The Cutbird Hudson, the John Clemmons plot and the four acres where Ephriam Harlan had lived, he sold these to Ansel Gerrish in 1859.
(The Ayers family had been in the area since between 1840 and 1850. Joseph's father John Ayers who was born in New Jersey, lived near the Brownstown Road to the east of Paris in Jefferson County. Joseph and his brothers and sisters were all born in Ohio, John Ayers and his wife Sarah Ann (Ward) Ayers had lived in Hamilton County Ohio, were they were married in 1813 after John had served in the War of 1812. Joseph married Dec. 2, 1851 in Jefferson County to Harriet Agnes Zener daughter of David & Phoebe (Baker) Zener, who had settled on Neil's Creek around 1820.)
   
The issue of March 17, 1870, of the North Vernon Plain Dealer carried this advertisement: "G. W. Harlan and Joseph Ayers have formed a partnership in the furniture business and have a complete stock...They have coffins..." G. W. Harlan was himself a chairmaker by trade; Ayers was primarily a carpenter.
   Joseph Ayers was 42 years old in 1870. His mother, Sarah A. Ayers, bought lots #140, #141, and part of #142, just west of their funeral service business, in 1872 (U-281). Within a few years, she could not live alone and her unmarried daughter, Mary Jane of Boone County, came to Paris and took care of her until her death in 1883/4; she had died before December 23, 1884 (12-381). She also had a son Benjamin S., who lived in Boone County.
(The family of John & Sarah Ann Ayers consisted of 6 sons and 1 daughter: Lewis D b. 1814; George W. b. 1820; Milton b. 1821; Benjamin S. b. 1827; Joseph b. 1828; Isaac Newton b. 1831; Mary Jane b. 1837.)
 
The Ayers (Joseph & Harriet) are buried in the New Section of the Paris graveyard. Harriet died in 1900 and Joseph later, but his death date was not inscribed on their stone.
(Joseph lived to be 92 years old and died April 16, 1920 in Paris at the home of his daughter Geneva and her husband Simeon Stewart.)
  The children of Joseph and Harriet Ayers were Leonidas, Maggie, who was 8 years old at the time of the 1880 census, and MDL said Jennie and Katie.
(Their children were Geneva "Jennie", Mathias, Sarah, Leonidas, Joseph L. and Magdaline.)
 
A perusal of the book, "Revolutionary War Patriots" reveals a Benjamin Ayers 1763-1844), a drummer from Maine. Datewise, this could be the same man who in 1792 bought 200 acres in Hampshire County Virginia ("History of Hampshire County, Virginia". page 404). He could have been making his way westward; Joseph was born in Ohio, in 1828, and this Benjamin of the Revolution could have been the grandfather of Joseph and Benjamin S., sons of Sarah A.
(No proof that this Benjamin is not a relative but Joseph's father was John Ayers, there is a Revolutionary War connection as John Ayers was the son of Jedediah Ayers who was born in 1760 and died in Fulton County, New York in 1835,
 Service Record--
He enlisted in June or July of 1776 and served 3 months as a fifer in Captain Albert's Company, Colonel Barnabas Sears Massachusetts Regiment; He immediately re-enlisted in Captain Fay's Company, Colonel Davie's or Davidson's Regiment in General Washington's Life Guards. He was in the battles of White Plains,Monmouth, Morristown and Yorktown and was discharged in June of 1783. This information is from a letter concerning his pension application written by Winfield Scott, Comm. 
Grave offically marked by the General Richard Montgomery Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution. Film No 0973007, Family Hisotry Center Library, Salt Lake City, UT.
From the MASSACHUSETTS SOLDIERS and SAILORS of the REVOLUTIONARY WAR:
"Ayres, Jedehiah, Belchertown. Discriptive list of men raised agreeable to order of general court of June 22, 1780; Captain Dwight's company; age, 16 years; stature, 5ft 5in.; complexion, light; residence, Belchertown; enlistment, 3 months."
From Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors in the War of the Revolution-Ayres, Jedediah, Belchertown. Private, Capt. Job Alvord's co., Col. S. Murray's (Hampshire Co.) regt.; enlisted July 19, 1780; service 29 days; enlistment, 3 months; company raised to reinforce Continental Army; Capt. Oliver Coney's co., Col. Sears's regt.; enlisted August 12, 1781; discharged 1781; service, 3 mos. 10 days; enlistment, 3 months.

 
Leonidas (Lee) Ayers, son of Joseph and Harriet, spent all of his very active life (1860-1940) in Paris. He was well-known and well-liked. He engaged in carpentry and his most noteworthy achievement was the renovation of the Methodist parsonage, which he made into such an attractive modern home, yet retaining its original charm.


                                                                                  GRAVEYARD

  The graveyard Samuel S. Graham bequeathed to the town of Paris was "an acre of ground laid out in a square form" perched on the high south bank of Graham Creek as it flows in a southwestwardly course north of town. The northwest side of the graveyard slopes rather sharply down to the river - a lovely spot in October.

  The graveyard lies about a quarter of a mile north of the former meeting house lots, #35 and #36. Before 1837, while the church was still standing on these lots, there would have been a lane connecting the church and graveyard to be used for funerals.

  When the church was built in 1837 on Lot #112 on South Second Street, another means of access to the public graveyard was required. The solution was by a lane turning west from North Second Street (the Vernon road) at about opposite Dr. Russell's plaster house. It may have been alluded to in the deed book entry of 1840, G-21, as being "one rod in width". A rod is 16 1/2 feet. This lane also ran along the north side of the house where Ephraim Harlan once lived and must have been the determining factor in the placement of the Harlan private graveyard, which is snuggled into the angle formed where the lane enters the town graveyard.

  The one story Harlan house was somewhat above average with its double front door flanked by two windows on either side. A Mrs. Hagins was occupying it in the 1950's, while serving as a fraternity house mother at Franklin College during the winter months. At Thanksgiving time, in 1955, the house was destroyed by fire, a mobile home was set up in its place the following spring, the lane was plowed under and obliterated. Since then, the few visitors to the old graveyard have had to pick their way over rough, cultivated ground.
(The Mrs. Hagens mentioned above was actually Mrs. Emma Higgins, wife of Earl Higgins who was the son of Milo & Jane Sampson Higgins. Emma Higgins maiden name was Vincent. I remember visiting her as a child and we called her the "Bottle Lady" because she had an extensive collection of old bottles. My grandparents Frank & Della Stewart lived in the Harlan house in 1913 it was their first home after their marriage. The Paris graveyard is today nearly impossible to access, due there being no lane back to it and the current owners not encouraging visitors.)

 
Many of the early settlers were buried in the old graveyard without tombstones, because of the expense and difficulty of getting one. However, the grave site was always marked by a sizable field stone; in time these became moved around and no longer served their purpose.

  The oldest inscribed tombstone still standing in the graveyard is that of Dr. Benjamin B. Hews, who died in 1826. He had bought 14 acres adjoining the east side of Paris in 1825 (A-288), made his last will and testament in October 1826 and died the following November 12. At the time of his death, he also owned a house and lot in Hanover and his widow evidently returned there. The Madison newspaper carried his obituary (from DAR compliation): "Died in Paris, Jennings County, Indiana, Dr. Benjamin Hews, 39 years of age, formerly of Newark, New Jersey. He leaves a wife and four children".

  Among those buried in this first graveyard was Esther Graham, wife of the co-founder of Paris, who died in 1832, aged 48 years.

  The only burials in this graveyard after the turn of the century were of those who had spouses or children buried there years before and the space was being held for the survivors.

                                                                        DIXON GRAVEYARD

  In the meantime, Henry S. Dixon, who owned the farmland surrounding the graveyard, began wondering where the numerous Dixons would be buried, so he donated additional land extending south from the town graveyard, for members of the Dixon family.

  However, many were buried in the Dixon graveyard who do not bear the surname of Dixon. Their burial in the Dixon graveyard wa by courtesy of Henry S., it was more by invitation than by permission.

                                                                        THE NEW SECTION

  What was called the "New Section" of the graveyard at the north end of Main Street was initiated as a burying ground by Dr. B.F. Russell, in 1864.

  George W. Bantz had purchased the two former meeting house lots, #35 amd #36, in 1852 (Q-364), and he no doubt is the person who conceived the idea that they would be ideal for the much needed and accessable town cemetery.

  Dr. Russell and his son, Solon, in 1864, purchased a 40-foot-wide strip extending 30 feet south from the northern boundary of lot #36, with the specification "for the purpose of a private burying ground for all time to come" (4-145). Perhaps it was the death of Dr. Russell's four-year-old grandson that year that reminded them of the inevitability of death; or it could have been the death of Dr. Russell's son, David C., in the Civil War conflict in 1862. The son must have been buried immediately in Tennessee, and brought to Paris and buried in the family plot in 1864.

  Dr. Russell's wife Adelline, died, died in 1877, and is buried in this plot, but neither Dr. Russell, nor Solon, has a stone still standing. Dr. Russell died a few years after him:  "While Dr. Russell was driving to Deputy last week in a spring wagon, he was thrownout at the Campground and was so seriously hurt that there is doubt of his recovery".  However, he did not succumb at that time and lived two or three more years.

  The newspaper of August 4, 1881, reported Solon's death: "The sad news flashed over the wires last Saturday that Solon Russell of Charlestown and the son of Dr. B. F. Russelll of Paris, had been run over by the cars and instantly killed. Mr. Russell's remains were brought to Paris for interment on Friday".

  In 1868, George W. Harlan and his son-in-law, William H. Dixon, bought a plot extending the Russell 40 wide strip south by 25 feet (7-333) with the stipulation "in consideration of a promise to be buried on the following lands".

  This 40 foot wide strip was extended in 1877 by 25 feet, by Phoebe Zenor (17-378) (Phoebe probably purchased this plot as a place to bury her husband David Zenor/Zener who died January 5, 1877 and whose stone is still standing in the cemetery, there is a discrepancy as to his actual death date since the headstone reads January 5th and his will was signed January 8th??)and the same year by Alonzo Gaddy, " of Louisville", by 20 feet (18-558).  (Alonzo Gaddy was the son of Benjamin S. Gaddy and Sarah "Sally" Cobb. Sarah (Cobb) Gaddy his mother died Dec. 4 of 1877 and is buried in this plot as is a Martha Gaddy who was born in 1811 and died Sept. 1, 1877) 

  In 1882, Bill (W.A. Jones) of Bedford bought a 14 X 27 plot along the west side of the Harlan and Dixon plot. When Bill had moved from Paris in 1880, his wife, the former Nan Sampson, had become very obese and was addicted to morphine due to medical perscription. When he sold property in Paris in 1881 (21-521), she was deceased or unable to sign her name, and in November, 1885 (27-55), his wife was named Lucinda. Nan may have died at the time he bought the graveyard plot, or he may have been thinking, too, of his aging and ailing parents, Philip and Harriet Atwood Jones, although they did not actually use the space until 1899 and 1903, respectively. 

  By 1882, William H. Dixon of Cincinnati, evidently decided to go into the graveyard business and bought the remaining unused space in lots #35 and #36, as well as all of lots #37, and #38 (23-482). The plots which he sold are not recorded in the deed books but the names on the stones reveal who bought the plots.
(William H. Dixon had a connection to this cemetery prior to that as his  wife Eliza M. Harlan Dixon is buried in the Harlan section).

 
In 1889, after William H. Dixons death, the assignee of his estate, Lincoln Dixon, sold all remaining space to James E. Wykoff (30-216, 217) and that explains all the Wykoff stones across the west end of the graveyard.

  It is easy to miss the Morey and Farthing stones; there are about seven of them, in a grove of saplings north of the Russell plot. (All the trees in the graveyard have been removed and these stones are now easy to find).

Government issued stones for Civil War Soldiers buried in the original Paris graveyard are:

    Eberly Eastman     Dixon's Co., 9th Indiana Legion

 
 

    J. L. Hunt    Co. C, 175th Ohio Inf.

    David H. Sampson     Co. K, 120 Ind. Inf.

    J. W. Tate    Co. C.  52nd Ind. Inf.

    R. M. Walker    Co. R. Ind. Inf.

In the Dixon Section of the Paris graveyard

    Robert S. Dixon    Sgt.,  Co. K,  120 Ind. Vol.

Buried on the Russell plot in the New Section of the graveyard, is

    David C. Russell,  Hospital Steward, 17th Regular Kentucky Vol.
                                 Killed at Pitsburgh Landing, Tennessee
                                 August 12, 1862
                                 Aged - 20 years, 7 months 



                                                                                PROCURING TEA 

    As MDL remembered tea could be procured only from the tea salesman who came to town once a year. She thought it was a Mr. Murphy from Michigan
    This would indicate that tea was an imported article as recently as the 1870's.  Imported from an English tea company. Tetley's by way of Canada. Detroit would be the logical location for the importer serving the mid western states, so near the Canadian border and with good rail lines eas and west out of which his salesman or representatives could fan out over his territory.
    This situation was soon changed with the formation of the United States' own tea companies. the huge Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company, which became the A & P grocery chain, and the smaller companies such as the Jewel Tea Company.
    With adequate storage facilities our country's tea companies could buy tea in quantity at its source, and then package it in convenient sizes to be sold at retail stores.
    Even without the importation duty, tea was still a luxury which every pioneer could not afford. Before colas and soft drinks were thought of, and before the tase for coffee was cultivated, everybody liked tea, considering it refreshing.
(My mother Frances Stewart Smith remembers her father in the 1930's going out and digging sasafrass root to make tea when she lived in Paris during the depression, tea was a luxury as was coffee so they went back to getting their beverage from a local source. Vernon has a Sasafrass Festival every Spring and I still have a little bundle of Sasafrass root I purchased there when I first moved back to Indiana.)
   
Mrs. Samuel Hall of the Coffee Creek Baptist Church environs, enjoyed her cup of tea. When she was left a widow she found her Sunday afternoons, a time she and her husband had enjoyed with friends, very lonely. She suspected that other aging widows were having the same experience, so she formed the habit of calling on other widows on Sunday afternoons. As one such widow confided to MDL, when Mrs. Hall suspected that her hostess for that afternoon didn't have tea in the house, Mrs. Hall would take along tea for two. With the hostess providing briskly boiling water, voila! The two could chat over a cup of freshly brewed tea!


                                                                        TO THE DOOR SERVICE

    "Old Man Terry" who lived up on Neil's Creek called rather frequently to "fix" and oil clocks. He always brought his wife and small daughter along because his wife had suicidal inclinations.
    A. Mr. Ranklin drove a notion wagon. That was the day of straight pins. MDL thought he serviced the retail stores as well as individuals. His wagon was in the form of a big black box with doors at the back. He sat on top of the box, toward the front.
    The ragman "Old Michael" from Madison, came often to make his pick ups.


                                                                            FOR RELAXATION
 

    After supper on summer evenings, the men would gather in front of the tavern to discuss current topics; while the youth would gather around the town pump at the northwest corner of Lot #10.
    
    In the late summer, Henry Zenor, who lived on a farm just east of town, would come in with his pockets bulging with apples. Also, the farm boys usually had a horse they were proud of:  ocassionally, they might ride the horse to be admired by their peers. Often the assembled group was treated to a taste of real showmanship when Alley Willey, who spent his summers with his grandfather Williamson Dixon, and Alley's uncle True Dixon, not much older, would sweep past, standing on their horses backs. This took the utmost cooperation between horse and rider; the slightest sudden deviation in the horse's rhythm would result in the standing rider losing his equilibrium!

   Occasionally, a traveling show would come to town. MDL remembers one around Christmastime the winter her mother died. The act which fascinated the little girl was a tall, thin man unfolding himself from a box.

   At least once, an organ grinder and his uniformed monkey visited the town. MDL remembered the organ grinder setting his organ on a stone at the front gate and grinding out his tune. His and his monkey's livelihood depended on the coins dropped in the monkey's bag at the close of the tune. A house the size of the one where MDL lived could be expected to yeild several giggling, curious children, each eager to drop his coin in the monkey's pouch. You can imagine the organ-grinder's chagrin when all it produced was one timid little girl, to scared to go near the monkey.

   The 1880's produced the singing school which held its meetings at night through the winter months. During these months the different age groups learned songs which they sang at the concert at the close of the school - which also called for a new dress.

   Toward the end of the 1880's. Christmas programs at the church became very popular; at some they raised money for a worthy cause, such as a new stove for the church. Oyster suppers were the favorite.


                                                                               PART III

   These few biographical sketches are presented with the hope they will clarify the overall picture of Paris in its early days.
John Cobb

    John Cobb, with Dennis Willey, bought his first Paris property in 1829 (B-63) when he was but 21 years old. The 1850 census lists him as a "trader". He gives the impression of a young man hustling around seeking a business relationship of immediate benefit. He married Maria Malcom, born in Maryland in 1807.
    An Eliza J. Dixon a widow, born in 1828 and daughter of John and Maria Malcom Cobb, died in 1887 (Death Record #549, page 29, first book); she was buried in Paris. She must have been their oldest child. In the early 1830's, John was "selling goods" with Charles K. Laird and Samuel Weir. In the mid 1830's, he was in partnership with Ephraim Sampson in connection with the carding machine. In 1836, he enlarged a partnership with Dennis Willey, possibly in pork-packing. He was also a skilled carpenter as proven by his building of his own brick residence around 1850, so he may have been one of the carpenters working on the brick residence of Dennis Willey in 1839/40. His parents may have been Thomas (1781-1853) and Priscilla (1782-1868) Cobb who bought their first property in 1837 (D-479). In 1847/48 (M-313) they went to Howard County to live, but both are buried in the First Coffee Creek Baptist graveyard. The culmination of John Cobb's efforts in Paris was the building of his own brick residence on town lots #84, #19, #20 and #21 on South Main Street which he sold to William Deputy in 1853 (R-527). While the structure is not impressive because of bulk or size, it possessed an unexpected nicey of detail inside. It was not a no frills house. MDL said "they" said he "went broke" building it. When he sold the house in 1853, he went to Madison to live and perhaps to recoup his finances in the brisker business climate Madison had to offer. He was in his mid-forties, not an old man, with three teenage children at home: Thomas born in 1834, Samuel F., born in 1841, and William, 1842.
William Deputy
   William Deputy was born in 1803 in Parkersburg, (what is now) West Virginia. After their wedding in Deleware, his parents Solomon and Sarah (Sally) Hudson Deputy, gaily took off in a two-wheel cart to cross the Alleghenny Mountains, the first leg of their journey westward, They stopped for about five years in Parkersburg to catch their breath and prepare for the continuation of the journey westward by flatboat down the Ohio River. This is where and when William was born. At the same time, relatives of Solomon had entered land at Deputy, Jefferson County, Indiana. Solomon's land grant covered land on Coffee Creek, west of the present day Christian Church, in what was to be Jennings County.     Solomon and Sarah Deputy came on a flat boat with three other families. When they raised their log cabin in late 1810, their only neighbors were wild animals (wild cats and bears) and Indians. It would be six more years before Indiana achieved statehood and seven years before Jennings County was organized. It is true they had relatives just a few miles away, but in between was Graham Chreek and uncharted forest. That would not be much comfort when they were locking their cabin door at night. Their first year in Indiana, 1811, was indeed a lonely year. Before the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1812, when the Indians were on their warpath, they did take refuge in the block house at Deputy, but they had to leave some of their stock and their chickens behind. Whatever their circumstances, the parents took time to teach their children to read and write. When a young man William had married Cassandra Gassaway of Charlestown in Clarks Grant, sister of the first wife of Dennis Willey. William worked hard on his farm and gave farms to his children as they married. His youngest son Addison Clark Deputy, however, chose to become a dentist in Indianapolis, perhaps inflluenced by his relative, Merrit Wells, who was among the first five or six dentists in that city.    It is understandable that William was ready to retire from hard work when he was about 50 years old. He first bought the Dr. Goodhue house on March 12, 1852, on Lot #150 in Paris (P-441). In 1853 the John Cobb residence became available so he sold the Dr. Goodhue property and bought the Cobb property (R-527) where he lived until 1881 when he sold it to Dr. Lefebre. This was comprised of six lots on South Main Street; he had bought adjacent land to the west of the town lot to make four acres. Now a four acre farm, orchard, gardens, barns, etc., right in town. There was a small frame house north of his brick residence where he sold notions, made brooms, and made or repaired children's shoes, when not attending to his farm. Because of his unique childhood experience, he was the favorite speaker at the Old Settlers' Meetings in the 1870's. His speeches did not deal with how many Indians he killed each day, but rather how they coped with the small unexpected daily challenges. He wrote these speeches with a quill pen in little hand-made notebooks which are being preserved by the Indiana Historical Society in Indianapolis.     When he died he was buried in the family graveyard on the farm on Coffee Creek where his father had been buried in a hollowed out log in 1816.
The Dixons
   The surname Dixon predominated in Paris. It started with Henry Dixon (1776 - 1839) who entered land in Graham Township, Jefferson County, in 1818 the year Paris was laid out. His wife was the former Alcy Wilson (1779 - 1865). Although he was a farmer, his sons seemed to prefer business. His only daughter, Jane, was born in Virginia in 1801 and was married to Daniel Milton Hill, son of Elder Thomas Hill, Sr., the father of the Coffee Creek Baptist Church, on April 22, 1824, by the Elder John Vawter. Henry's two youngest sons were Ellison, born in Kentucky in 1809 and Williamson born in 1815. On February 13, 1834, Ellison married Margaret Dinwiddie, sister of the first Mrs. Charles K. Laird and Mrs. James S. Smyth, both of whom died in mid-life.
(There is an error here, the wife of Charles K. Laird-Jane J. Dinwiddie, who most of us researching the Lard/Laird family had assumed died not only did not die but remarried in 1855 to William Wright and after his death married in 1866 to Ephraim Sampson, she actually died in Illinois after 1880.) Margaret Dixon lived a long life span. She died in 1878 and Ellison in 1881. They lived until their deaths in the brick house on Lot #8 which they had bought in 1846 when the creditors of Samuel S. Graham were disposing of his property. Although Ellison was sporadically engaged in various business ventures, often with Williamson, he mainly concentrated his energies onpork packing on Lot #9, next door to his home lot. Williamson married Nancy Osborn on January 14, 1836, and was a very successful tailor to the extent of needing an assistant. By 1859, he was financially able to buy the farm and fine brick residence of Dennis Willey. This gracious home was the setting for a happy family life which culminated in a gala Wedding Anniversary celebration in January 1886. But misfortune soon struck. According to the newspaper of March 24, 1886, "W.W. Dixon, father of Harman Dixon, died at his home in Paris on last Sunday. A few days ago, Mr. Dixon had one of his fingers badly smashed and the finger had to be amputated, and on Sunday Mr. Dixon died from the effects of lockjaw." The obituary mentions that he united with the Coffee Creek Baptist Church when he was 26 years old and for 45 years had proven himself to be a "Christian, a good neighbor, a kind husband, and a forgiving father. His final sickness was of short duration." Williamson and Nancy's daughter, Elizabeth, had married Addison Clark Willey, and their son, Alley, spent his summers with his grandparents to the joy of all.     Harman Dixon, son of Williamson Dixon, was born in 1844. He could not wait to get into the Civil War and enlisted when he was but 17 years old. When General Lee finally surrended his sword in April 1865, Harman was only 21 years old. After the war, he chose to stay in Vernon where Samuel W. Dixon was sheriff. In 1866 he was in the mercantile business Paris and busy harvesting ice; 1886 was a cold winter. They had a method of cutting slabs of ice from the river, packing it in sawdust and storing in a specially constructed building. What a luxury to have ice in summer! Harman bought the John Cobb house ater 1890. His wife Sara Lou, died in 1906 and was buried in the Vernon Cemetery. Later, Harman married Eva Conway of Uniontown, 1872 - 1964. She was buried in the Coffee Creek Baptist graveyard. Harman died in 1933 and was buried at Vernon. Eva continued to live contentedly in the brick house for more than 30 years after his death.     Henry S. Dixon was the son of Patrick W. Dixon and grandson of the Henry Dixon who entered land in Jefferson County. Henry S. was born in 1819. As an astute business man he had no equal and had his finger in just about everything going on in the community. Over the years he served in many elective and appointive capacities, among them was county commissioner and township trustee. From about 1856 until his death in 1891 he lived in the Dr. Goodhue house on Lot #150 in Paris. In 1966 his great grand daughter sold the house. It was immediately torn down and replaced with a ranch type house.     Samuel W. Dixon was born in 1826 and died in 1869. He served more than one term as county sheriff, vigorously executing the duties of the office. His wife Belinda Foster Dixon, was a strong character in her own right and possibly firmed his resolve. (Belinda Foster was the daughter of Hiram Foster and Mary "Polly" Trumbo early settlers near Deputy, Indiana.) They were the parents of Lincoln Dixon who resided in North Vernon and was a well known (in Jennings County) lawyer and politician.
The Harlans
    Both Ephrain and George W. Harlan were born in Kentucky, Ephraim in 1810 and George W. in 1812, both were chairmakers both were in Lexington, Scott County, in the 1820's, and both came to Paris around 1830. 
(According to the "History of the Harlan Family" they were sons of James Harlan born 9/13/1769 in Washington County, Maryland and Mary Ann Wood born 6/25/1772 in Washington County, Maryland.) Ephraim bought Lot #25 in Paris in 1832 (G-33) and on April 2, 1825 married Lucinda Denslow. In 1840 Ephraim and Lucinda bought a four acre tract north of Paris on the west side of the Vernon Road through which ran the lane to the public graveyard. The three tombstones in their private iron fence-enclosed graveyard tell their story: Braxton, born May 13, 1837, died 1839 Leander, born August 29, 1842, died 1843; and Lucinda died 1844, 28 years old. You can understand why Ephraim wanted to leave his home. By 1846 Ephraim had married Serelda (Zerelda) Denslow, who was living in the East Lovett Township, which was only a few miles from Paris. Ephraim died September 30, 1882, just one month after George W. Harlan's death. He was buried in the Graham Presbyterian graveyard, (East Lovett(and his stone notes that he was the husband of "L. and Z. Harlan". A line of the verse on his stone may refer to the happy years he had spent with Lucinda in Paris; "the soul has gone to join the loved of old." George W. continued living in Paris, an outstanding citizen, serving his townsmen by his "Chairmaking" which included simple household furniture. He lived for almost 20 years on Lot #27 which he had bought in 1855 (T-503). His wife died in 1872 and he then lived elsewhere but he did not sell the Lot #27 porperty until 1879 (19-401). (The Harlan men seemed to be fond of the Denslow women in the "History of the Harlan Family" George W. [Wood] Harlan married Mary Denslow daughter of Chapman Denslow,Judge of the Jennings County Probate Court.)
Just before his death he deeded a lot in North Vernon to Sardie P. Harlan, of East St. Louis, Illinois, unmarried, "for natural love and affection." (Sardis P. Harlan is listed in the "History of the Harlan Family" as his youngest son.) George W. died August 29, 1882, a month before Ephraim, and is buried in the New Section of the Paris graveyard.
Cutbird R. Hudson
    The Hudsons around Paris were descendants of Ananias and Magdalene Willey Hudson who settled in Indiana around 1816. Cutbird R. did not seem to fit in this family, yet he is doubtless related. A glance through the index to Revolutionary War Patriots published by the Daughters of The American Revolution, disclosed a Cutbird Hudson born in 1733, a captain from North Carolina. The exact duplication of the misspelling of the name "Cuthburt" Impelled the inferenence that the Cutbird R. of Paris had to be the grandson or great-nephew of the Cutbird of North Carolina. Cutbird R. was one of those who could read and write and that brought him into the business activities of the town and county. It also played a part in getting him a position of trust: collecting revenue for the county. However, he did not fulfill this responsibility with honor. On November 19, 1835 (D-39) Ezra Paybody of Vernon, a county official issued a "within mortgage" on Cutbird's property with the stipulation that "the said Cutbird R. Hudson shall, will and duly pay into the treasury of Jennings County the full amount of County revenue for the year 1834." Without making restitution, Cutbird R. just abandoned his Paris residence and moved to a higher rung on the ladder of self-esteem by going up to the Zenas area. Columbia Township. There on March 10, 1836, he was married to Martha Ann Elliott by John B New of Vernon. In those early days, the importance of the person officiating at a marriage was a clue to the social standing of the parties getting married. The Elliotts were the kings and queens of the Zenas area. Then, too, Cutbird probably rubbed elbows almost daily in passing with John B. New when New was vigorously organizing the Coffee Creek Christian Church prior to 1834 and Cutbird was one of the few literate citizens in the community. Wondering whatever happened to Cutbird R., the index of the 1850 Census was consulted. It was revealed a C.R. Hudson in Switzerland County (Vevay) in that year.
James E. Lewis
    James E. Lewis was an educator; he often assisted Professor Blinn in his secondary school (high school) classes. He and his wife, Sarah D. (MDL said they called her Damsel) bought the brick house on Lot #27 in 1879 and were still living there in 1890. Sarah D. may have been a sister of the Reverand William Henry Lawrence, who was born in Clark County. James E. Lewis was teaching in Clark County in 1887/88. 
(I show Sarah Damsel Lawrence as the daughter of John J. Lawrence and Ruth Merrell making it correct that she was the sister of Rev. William Henry Lawrence. William Henry Lawrence married Lavinia Lewis daughter of Daniel Lewis and Harriet Rice Keith). William Henry and Lavinia were the parents of George Franklin Lawrence who married my great grand aunt Sarah Catherine Ayers daughter of Joseph & Harriet Ayers. George Franklin Lawrence was the Mayor of North Vernon in 1900. James E. was born in 1843 Sarah D. was born in 1846 and died in Redlands, California, in 1938, aged 93 years. A James E. Lewis served in the Civil War and was shot near Stone River, Tennessee. in 1861. James E. and Sarah D. were the parents of two children, Grant born in 1869, and Rosella, born in 1872. Grant was attending at Moore's Hill in 1885 and at Athens Tennessee in 1889. He taught in Seymour, Jackson County, or was principal of the high school there, in the early 1900's. He lived on the southeast corner of the intersection of Sixth and Walnut Streets, the house is still standing but the exterior appearance was changed by a later occupant. (from Jonathan Lopnow James E. Lewis was the son of Ezekial Lewis, who was born in Connecticut in 1799/1800.)

Dennis Willey
    Dennis Willey was born in 1797; he came to Paris from Charlestown, Indiana, in the late 1820's and he bought his first property in Paris, with John Cobb, in 1829 (D-35). On July 13, 1826, he married Margaret Gassaway in Charlestown. She was born in 1804 and was the sister of Mrs. William Deputy who lived on Coffee Creek, west of the Coffee Creek Christian Church Willey was an ordained Methodist Epispocal minister (he always wrote "MEM" after his name on the marriage documents although he seems not to have had a pastorate. However, he was a with young couples getting married as officiating person in charge of the ceremony. He and John Cobb were in partnership for many years and bought several pieces of property together. By 1839 he was financially able to build the kind of residence he wanted. The main part of the house contains four large rooms, two upstairs and two downstairs, separated by a room-size hall with its stately staircase. Back of these rooms were four rooms, two upstairs and two downstairs with a narrow, steep, enclosed stairway. This makes a total of eight rooms, exclusive of halls.    Margaret Gasaway Willey died January 2, 1841, after having had six children. Dennis then married Lydia P. Robinson, had five more children and sold his farm and beautiful house to Williamson Dixon in 1859. He would have been only 62 years old when he left Paris.
    The 1830s were a period of exhileration and railroad building in Indiana - until the Panic of 1837, which had to do with the financial structure of the state. Of course, it eventually trickled down, but probably the average working man didn't understand it and wasn't aware of it, so it couldn't dampen his enthusiasm for the railroad and cloud his expectations. The citizens of Paris were aware of all this. The word had a way of getting around. Madison had a newspaper which carried news items from as far north as Geneva Township (Scipio) and Vernon. Being such a short line, it would built in less time than, for instance, a transcontinental line. The local residents boasted that it was the third railroad completed in the United States. They were so railroad crazy in their expectations, every little town was looking forward to the fulfillment of the rumor that the O M would build a branch line from North Vernon to Louisville. The residents of Paris, which had shown such bright prospects for growth, had every reason to expect that their town would be on this branch line. Finally in October 1853, the railroad company tentatively started buying Paris Property for possible future use as rights-of-way through the town. Indentures stating the terms of the transfer of property were drawn up, and certificates issued to the grantor in the amount of value of the property. Each indenture carried this provision which added greatly to the county recorder's work in entering these indentures by long-hand into the deed books!

   Here are the provisions; "The said grantor(s) retain the possession and reserve the right to redeem the aforesaid premises at any time within five years by payment of the said cost money with interest on the expenses of the company thereon and shall in the meantime pay the taxes and shall keep the premises in as good rapair as they are at this time, natural wear and tear excepted; and shall cause the buildings, if over the value of $250, to be insured and kept so to an amount equal to 2/3 of their value for the benefit of the company, and the grantor(s) shall be accountable for the rent for any part of said premises which are farming lands. And if the said part of said premises, grantor(s) fail to cause the buildings to be insured as above required, for redemption and possession... And should the grantor(s) not redeem the premises at the expiration of five years, they shall without notice immediately yield to the grantee the quiet and peaceable possession of the above premises and upon payment of the redemption money the grantee shall reconvey the premises to the grantors, their heirs, assignees, legal representatives..."

   No one had to lose his home because of the tentative sale of his premises to the railroad company.

   Indentures were issued to fifteen grantors, some of whom owned more than one piece of property.

   It did not take five years for the railroad company to decide it was not practicable to lay the track through Paris; It may have been due to the high elevation of the town, and the company started deeding the property back to the original owners in 1854. All of this was duly recorded in the deed books.

   This ended a dream. Of course, the citizens of Paris were deeply disappointed - in some cases, bitter. They felt the railroad had not dealt honestly with them. But they found that life goes on. The momentum of growth which had been building in the town through the 1830s and 1840s took about that long to run down. They could now relax and enjoy the fruits of their predecessors' labors. But not for long.

   There was a sense of excitement and suspense in the air. Important issues were being discussed heatedly at the national and local levels. Perhaps no one in Paris had had his life touched by slavery, but that does not mean they could no have strong convictions on what was right or wrong. The two brilliant debaters, Lincoln and Douglas, contributed to the interest and zeal. The partisan emotions that had been kindled by the debates culmninated in the presidential campaign of 1860. Appearing in an April 1860 issue of the Vernon Banner was a letter from a Paris "patriot" pointing out what action had been taken in Montgomery Township:
  "While preparations are being made for the struggle of 1860, the people of Montgomery are not idle, but met this evening to organize a free discussion society. We were pleased to see so many in attendance considering the short notice of the meeting, and a goodly number of Democrats. You may be sure the Montgomery will give a larger majority for the Chicago nominee than was ever polled for any candidate before." The Chicago nominee, of course, was Abraham Lincoln.

   From then on there were numberless pow-wows,gatherings, picnics, parades, speeches, bonfies, etc. It was a most exciting time(a time to forget the railroad), yet there was that ominous shadow on the horizen that no one could precisely put his finger on.
    Then the shadow erupted into war. Paris, being truly patriotic, gave her share of loved ones and heroes, and experienced the same anxiety, indignation and heartache as elsewhere.

   In 1863, General John Hunt Morgan carried out his famous raid in southern Indiana, and it was felt he wreaked special vengeance on Paris and vicinity, maybe because the resisted so determinedly.

   In 1867, the State had set up the Morgan Raid Commission which held court in various county seats to hear and pass on claims for damage suffered by indviduals.

   In October, 1867, the Vernon Banner carried the following notice:
"For the accomodation of the citizens of Madison and Montgomery Townships, the Commissioners advertised the sitting of the Commission three days, Oct. 10, 11, 12, at Paris.

This was followed by an article in the newspaper of October 17, 1867:
"A Trip with the Morgan Raid Commissioners"


"On Thursday morning last, bright and early, a merry party ensconced themselves in one of Reilley & Co.'s commodius hacks and started overland for Paris, the company consisted of Col. McCree, Commissioner; William F. Browning, Clerk of the Commission; Major Bonedrake, attorney for the State; W.C. Prather, and your correspondent. Another vehicle contained Col. S. Vawter and J.W. Summerfield, clerk of the Circuit Court.

"After leaving Vernon, crossing the Muscatatuck at the foot of Jackson Street, we struck was is called the Coffee Creek road, named from a stream that crosses and recorsses it. Leaving Vernon three miles behind, we passed the town of Centerville, It consists of twelve frame houses, a saw-mill, etc.

"Leaving Certerville, we travelled on smooth, level road...Here we took a cross road which leads into the old Paris road at the residence of Col. Malick. The way was uphill and down now until Paris was reached. Our hack drove up to the Jones House where everything was in readiness to receive us, Col. Vawter having been there a week in advance." Dinner being called, we sat down to a table groaning with its load of good things. After eating heartily and joking the Commissioners for their fondness for chicken, we repaired to the Good Templar's Hall over the Post Office were our jolly old friend D.M. Hill, had all in readiness for the Commissioners. Court convened and thirty claims were passed on that afternoon. "The citizens were all pleased with the Interest the Commissioners manifested in them by holding the court at Paris, thereby avoiding the expense of coming to Vernon; and also with Mr. Summerfield for acting as attorney for them without charge. Court convened at nine o'clock Friday morning and passed sixty claims through the day. In the evening, Mr. Pell, minister, delivered a lecture at the church on the "G.A.R." which was well attended.

"From the Vernon Banner of November 7, 1867:

"We are informed that the meeting of the Morgan Raid Commission in Ripley County, one of the Commissioners became very much vexed at the looseness of the citizens in preserving order and finally informed them that they should visit Jennings County, and especially Paris, and learn to behave like humans."

   The report of that visit appeared in the Vernon Banner of March 17, 1870:
"We took a trip to Paris via the Branch railroad last week. When the brakeman called out "Paris!" we were surprised to see our car so nearly emptied of passengers, as about eighteen persons got off. The citizens have not yet succeeded in having a switch located at that place, but expect one before long. The railroad company receives freight and passengers, and the Adams Express Co. has an office there with Silas Hudson as agent.

"Henry S. Dixon has built a storeroom at the railroad which is to be occupied by our worthy commissioners. L.& W. Hudson and our W. R. Davis have formed a partnership to deal in dry goods, etc. The firm of Gore & Lard has been dissolved and B. F. Lard (Benjamin Franklin Lard/Laird son of Samuel Lard Mary "Polly" Williams Hughes) has located at Commiskey.

"Mr Samuel Gore (Samuel Gore married Sarah Agnes Landon daughter of Francis Marion Landon & Malinda Zenor)and Silas Stribling (Silas Stribling was the son of Thomas Tibbetts Stribling & Sarah Vawter) have the timbers and machinery on the ground near the Paris station for a flouring mill and will soon be ready to grind all the wheat in that part of the county.

"After taking a bird's-eye-view of the surroundings at the station, we proceeded to Paris proper.

"The streets of Paris compare very favorably with most small towns at this season of the year, being very muddy.

"We found William A. Jones (who, by the way, is our authorized agent to receive subscriptions for the Banner) with a large stock of goods, well adapted to the wants of the people. He is very accommodating and clever, and consequently controls his share of the trade.

"The store of T. M. Dixon is filled with good clean stock of goods and customers will find anything they want including a large assortment of Queensware.

"Our old Democratic friend, James A. Hill, is still on the corner at the town pump, and as good-natured as ever; he certainly does a thriving business as he is always in a convivial mood.

"The drug store of Drs. Hudson and Lefebre is filled to overflowing; they keep a large stock of medicine and administer in doses to suit any of the ills that flesh is heir to.

"To keep off the blues, visit the shop of Clark and Bantz where you will find them making collars by the dozen for the Indianapolis market. These boys have the happy faculty of making people enjoy themselves, whether they want to or not. They are both unfortunate in one particular - for being old bachelors, and have disregarded for these many years the captivating manners and good looks of the fair sex that daily surrounds them. Boys, procrastination is the theif of time.

"G.W. Harlan and Joseph Ayers have formed a partnership in the furniture business and have a complete stock of everything in their line. They have coffins. If anyone wants to committ suicide..."

"Paris has her share of blacksmith shops, shoe shops, and other business houses. The citizens are all pleasant, agreeable gentlemen, well-posted in politics and not to be outdone in hospitality and generosity. Paris has always been a good trading point and business has revivied greatly since the building of the railroad."

By 1870, the Branch Line to Louisville had been built a mile or so northwest of Paris. (The site of Paris Crossing) The newspaper of January 6, 1870, says: "Paris how has railroad connection with the balance of the county. Heretofore she was hedged in, as we say, by hill and mud, but is now delivered from every kind of inconvience..."

   More about the railroad from the newspaper of August 25, 1870:
"The officers of the O & M road expressed surprise,we are informed, at so large a number of getting on the train at Paris the day of the mass meeting at the Fairgrounds. Mr. A. V. Hudson informed us that there were 97 persons who got on the train at their station. We would not be surprised if Paris would be made a stopping point and a switch put there before long. Paris certainly deserves a side track."

   Notwithstanding all the predictions, Paris never got the switch, although every effort was bent in that direction. Perhaps it is just as well because before too long the railroad had been replaced by motorized transportation: busses, trucks and individuals' automobiles, and the much sought for rails which had been so laboriously laid for the Branch Line from North Vernon to Louisville, had been taken up. They were no longer needed.


   By 1890, Paris had long since ceased to function as a town. For one reason and another, the population had slowly drifted elsewhere. But by the mid-twentieth century some very old houses were still standing and lived in.

    1)   On Lots #1 & #2, the asbestos cottage covers the skeleton of the original sturcture that stood on the same foundation, same spot for many years. The type and placement of the windows of the present house are completely modern. The original house that stood here was symetrical, with two floor-to-ceiling windows on each side of the front door; the front door opened onto a delicate portico.

   2)   On Lots #5 & #6 stands the original structure of the tavern which Thomas Ammons may have built before 1830. Over the years the building was badly treated but the present owner must have decided it should be preserved because the building has been encased, windows and doors, with upright boards.

   3)   South of the tavern, on Lot #8, is the brick two-story home that is still lived in. Its appearance has changed little. This house may have been built by Samuel S. Graham in the early 1830's.

   4)   Across the street on Lot # 28 is the one-story brick house which was built by James S. Smyth and was standing there in 1861. Deed Book entry of December 1861 (Y-361) refers to it:  "...beginning at the southwest corner of the one-story brick house..."

   5)   On the southwest corner of the main intersection, Lot #27, stands the two-story brick house Dr. Goodhue may have built between 1832 and 1836.

   6)   South of this house on the west side of Main Street, is the two story brick house which John Cobb built around 1850 and sold to William Deputy in 1853.

   7)   At the south end of Main Street, facing northwest, stands the one-story frame house with four windows across the front which Sampson and Cobb may have built in the early 1830's.

   8)   On lot #52 on Second Street stands the one-story brick cottage which the Methodists purchased in 1844 for a parsonage. In the 1930's or 40's, Lee Ayers completely remodeled and modernized it and it has been lived in ever since.

   9)   The two-story plaster house which Dr. Russell built in 1852 still stands at the north end of Second Street. It was remodeled complete with striped plastic awnings, in the 1960's.

  10)   The Dennis Willey two-story brick house built 1839/40 just east of town was the home and place of an antique dealer in the 1980s.

  11)   Dr. Goodhue's two-story frame house which stood on Lot #150 and which was built around 1850, was sold by his great-grandaughter in 1966. The house was torn down and replaced by a ranch-type house. So, Paris as a town, has dissappeared but it has several buildings to evoke cherished memories.



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